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Chapter 1

Health Sciences 1002A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Junk Food, Childhood Obesity, Anomie Belle


Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 1002A/B
Professor
Shauna Burke
Chapter
1

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Chapter 1 Taking Charge of Your Health
What is Health?
Health is a state of complete mental, physical and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of
disease or infirmity WHO definition, 1948
Health is, therefore seen as a resource for everyday life. Health is a positive concept emphasizing
social and personal resources, as well as physical capabilities Ottawa Charter, 1986
What is Wellness?
An expanded idea of health
The ability to live life fully, with vitality and meaning
o Not necessarily need to be completely physically/mentally/socially well
o Example, having a disability but still being happy or, being physically healthy but
have a mental disorder
Largely determined by the decisions that you make about how you live your life
Not a static goal but a dynamic process of change and growth
Encompasses 7 interrelated dimensions
Seven Dimensions of Wellness
Fluctuate and are not static
1. Physical
Requires healthy eating, exercise, learning about disease, getting regular check-ups, etc.
Influences quality of life and how many years you will live
Health related quality of life a personal sense of physical and mental health. Requires a full
range of functional capacity to enable people to work, play, and maintain satisfying
relationships.
2. Interpersonal/Social
Involves learning effective communication skills, developing the capacity for intimacy and
cultivating a support network.
Requires participating in and contributing to your community, country and world.
3. Mental/Intellectual
Includes openness to new ideas, a capacity to think critically and to learn new skills.
The ability to process and use information is one of the most important aspects of wellness.

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4. Occupational
A sense of personal satisfaction derived from career development
The important aspect of this dimension is that it involves attaining a work-life balance
5. Emotional
Includes optimism, trust, self-esteem, self control, an ability to share feelings
Requires monitoring feelings, identifying obstacles to emotional well-being & finding solutions to
emotional problems
Most closely related to your feelings
6. Environmental
Personal health depends on the health of the planet
Requires learning about and protecting yourself against such hazards
Also involved taking action-doing what you can to decrease the dangers
7. Spiritual
Includes having a set of guiding beliefs, principles or values that give meaning and purpose to
ones life
Involves the capacity for love, compassion, forgiveness, joy, altruism, and fulfillment
A resources for decreased personal stress
Some health professionals believe it is the core of wellness
Infectious vs. Chronic Diseases
Infectious: communicable from one person to another
e.g., Tuberculosis, diphtheria etc., common cold, HIV/AIDS SARS H1N1
Chronic: develop and become worse over a period of time caused in part (and sometimes) by
lifestyle factors
There is a mixture of things we can and cannot control for both infectious and chronic disease.
(ex, lifestyle, genetics)
Life Expectancy and Major Health Threats
Early 1900’s

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Life Expectancy = 58.8 yrs (M) 60.6 yrs (F)
Major health threats were infectious diseases (cholera, tuberculosis, pneumonia)
Spread due to lack of clean water, poor sewage removal, living in close quarters, etc.
Growing trade between countries moved diseases from one to the other
After WW II
Sources of infectious disease were soon discovered
Public health measures were introduced and became very important to prevent and control
the spread of disease
Adoption of vaccinations and development of antibiotics allowed Western society to control
the major causes of morbidity and mortality
o Sir Alexander Fleming discovered Penicillin by realizing that some mold prevented
bacterial growth
Huge discoveries began to change the outlook of the modern world people developed a
strong belief in science and medicine
People began to expect that modern medicine could conquer any illness
In Canada
Life expectancy: Men 78 years Women 83 years
Many risk factors fall within the realm of persons lifestyle
It is easier to pinpoint the cause of infectious diseases that are linked to specific bacteria
Health threats are mainly chronic diseases.
o Cancer, heart disease and stroke are the top three health threats in Canada
Chronic Diseases
The best course of action is prevention
o Although there are always exceptions (the person who smokes and drinks and lives
very long)
Individuals have some control over whether they develop certain chronic diseases
Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death, followed by a poor diet, inactivity and
alcohol use
Life Expectancy in Canada
Life expectancy in Canada is among the highest in the world
Most health regions with higher life expectancy are in and west of Ontario
Life expectancy increases:
o As unemployment decreases
o Level of education increases
o Concentrations of immigrants increases
Health immigrant effect: The first generation of an immigrating population
tends to be healthier than the rest of the population because the people that
do immigrate tend to be in better health
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