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Health Sciences 2711A/B Chapter Notes -Strafe-Jumping, Thyroid, Social Learning Theory


Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 2711A/B
Professor
Treena Orchard

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HS 2700A
October 5, 2009 Readings
Berk pp. 168-175
Heredity remains important in childhood physical growth, but environmental factors
including good nutrition, relative freedom from disease and physical safety also play
crucial roles in physical growth
The pituitary gland - located at the base of the brain and is responsible for producing
hormones related to growth
Growth Hormone (GH) - necessary for development of body tissues except the
CNS and genitals
without GH, children only reach up a height of 4ft,4 inches
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) - prompts the thyroid gland to release
thyroxine for brain development and for GH to impact body size.
Nutrition
preschoolers appetite has declined because their growth has slowed down
children tend to imitate food choices of people who their admire
by age 7, low SES children are about an inch shorter than their counterparts
Infectious Diseases
Infectious Disease and Malnutrition
measles typical in developing nations
poor diet depresses the immune system, making them susceptible to disease
of the 10 million deaths of children (under 5 yrs) worldwide, 98% of the deaths
are from developing countries
illness reduces appetite and limits the bodyʼs ability to absorb food
diarrhea from unsafe water in developing countries disrupts growth and leads to
deaths
diarrhea related growth retardation and deaths can be prevented by Oral
Rehydration Therapy (ORT)
children are given a solution of glucose, salt, water that replaces the fluids
the body lost
Immunization
24% of preschoolers lack immunizations
parents with daily stressful lives fail to schedule vaccine appointments
Childhood Injuries
leading cause of childhood mortality (40% of childhood deaths)
Factors Related to Childhood Injuries
gender - boys have higher activity level, and are more risk-taking, therefore,
boys are 1.5 times more likely to be injured than girls
temperamental characteristics (irritability, inattentiveness, and negative mood)
are more likely to be injured
poverty and low parental education
Preventing Childhood Injuries
many laws (seatbelt/carseat laws) made to reduce the numbers of injuries
child-resistant caps on medicine bottles, flameproof clothing, and fencing
around house/backyard
Motor Development

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Gross Motor Development - bodies become more streamlined and less top
heavy
balance improves greatly, manner of walking so does too
as they become steadier on their feet, they start to discover how to catch/throw
a ball, steering tricycles, etc
Fine Motor Development - control of hands and fingers, they are eventually able
to draw and write.
Drawing
1. Scribbles - intended representation is contained in gestures rather than
marks on the page (i.e. little girl draws a bunny hopping, but produces a
series of dots on the page)
2. First Representational forms - spontaneously draw so others can tell what
their picture represents (around 3 yrs old)
3. More realistic drawings - realism emerges as perception, language, and
memory improves.
Early Printing
preschoolers cannot distinguish the difference between writing and drawing
between ages of 4-6 is when children realize that language is for writing
alot of children reverse their letters up until the second grade
confuse mirror letter images such as b/d and p/q
Individual Differences in Motor Skills
tall, muscular bodied child tends to move more quickly and acquires skills
earlier than a shorter, stockier child
boys are ahead of girls with skills that emphasize power and force
girls are better with balance and foot movement
there is also the social pressure for boys to be very active and for girls to sit in
the corner.
Cognitive Development
Piaget and Vygotskyʼs theories
Piagetʼs Theory: The Preoperational Stage
2-7 years old
increase in representational or symbolic activity
Mental Representation: language as our most flexible means of mental
representation
Piaget said that language was not the primary ingredient in childhood
cognitive change
sensorimotor activity leads to internal images of experience, which children
then label with words
Make-Believe Play: by pretending, children practice and strengthen their new
representational schemes.
in early pretending, toddlers only use realistic objects, and their first acts
imitate adultsʼ actions - they are not imaginative
after 2 yrs old, children pretend with less realistic toys as their imagination is
becoming more flexible.
in early pretending, make-believe is individual-based

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later on, children combine schemes with those of peers in sociodramatic
play, the make believe with others that is underway by age 2.5 and
increases rapidly in the new few years.
Benefits of Make-Believe Play
cognitive and social skill development
they learn to cooperate and work with others
children who engage in sociodramatic play are socially competent
improves mental abilities, attention, imagination, memory, logic, and
laguage
Symbol-Real World Relations
to be able to draw and understand forms of representation, preschoolers
must realize that each symbol related to a state in everyday life
they canʼt do this until the age of 3
this is called dual representation - viewing a symbolic object as both an
object in its own right and a symbol.
Berk pp. 200-208
Emotional Development
between ages 2-6, children have a better understanding of their own emotions
they begin to experience self-conscious emotions and empathy, which contribute to
their sense of morality
Understanding Emotion
by age 4-5, they correctly judge the causes of many basic emotions (“Heʼs
happy because heʼs swinging high” or “Heʼs sad because he misses his
mother.”)
tend to emphasize external factors over internal states.
after age 4, children better understand how beliefs motivate behaviour.
can also predict what a playmate expressing certain emotion might do next.
thinking and feeling are interconnected
they come up with ways (hugging, etc) to relieve each otherʼs negative feelings
parents who express their feelings and talk about it, tend to have their children
able to judge othersʼ emotions.
children learn about emotions by interacting with adults
the more preschoolers refer to feelings when interacting with playmates, they
more liked they are by their peers
Emotional Self-Regulation
language also contributes to emotional self-regulation
children verbalize a variety of strategies for adjusting their emotional arousal to
a more comfortable level
i.e. talking to themselves (“Mommy will be back soon”)
Effortful Control - inhibiting impulses and shifting attention
3 yr olds who can distract themselves when frustrated tend to be
cooperative in school.
when parents express negative emotions, dismiss childrenʼs feelings as
unimportant, and have difficulty controlling their own anger, their children will
have problems managing their emotions.
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