Berk p. 168-175

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2711A/B
Treena Orchard

HS 2700A October 5, 2009 Readings Berk pp. 168-175 Heredity remains important in childhood physical growth, but environmental factors including good nutrition, relative freedom from disease and physical safety also play crucial roles in physical growth The pituitary gland - located at the base of the brain and is responsible for producing hormones related to growth Growth Hormone (GH) - necessary for development of body tissues except the CNS and genitals without GH, children only reach up a height of 4ft,4 inches Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) - prompts the thyroid gland to release thyroxine for brain development and for GH to impact body size. Nutrition preschoolers appetite has declined because their growth has slowed down children tend to imitate food choices of people who their admire by age 7, low SES children are about an inch shorter than their counterparts Infectious Diseases Infectious Disease and Malnutrition measles typical in developing nations poor diet depresses the immune system, making them susceptible to disease of the 10 million deaths of children (under 5 yrs) worldwide, 98% of the deaths are from developing countries illness reduces appetite and limits the bodys ability to absorb food diarrhea from unsafe water in developing countries disrupts growth and leads to deaths diarrhea related growth retardation and deaths can be prevented by Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) children are given a solution of glucose, salt, water that replaces the uids the body lost Immunization 24% of preschoolers lack immunizations parents with daily stressful lives fail to schedule vaccine appointments Childhood Injuries leading cause of childhood mortality (40% of childhood deaths) Factors Related to Childhood Injuries gender - boys have higher activity level, and are more risk-taking, therefore, boys are 1.5 times more likely to be injured than girls temperamental characteristics (irritability, inattentiveness, and negative mood) are more likely to be injured poverty and low parental education Preventing Childhood Injuries many laws (seatbelt/carseat laws) made to reduce the numbers of injuries child-resistant caps on medicine bottles, ameproof clothing, and fencing around house/backyard Motor Development Gross Motor Development - bodies become more streamlined and less top heavy balance improves greatly, manner of walking so does too as they become steadier on their feet, they start to discover how to catch/throw a ball, steering tricycles, etc Fine Motor Development - control of hands and ngers, they are eventually able to draw and write. Drawing 1. Scribbles - intended representation is contained in gestures rather than marks on the page (i.e. little girl draws a bunny hopping, but produces a series of dots on the page) 2. First Representational forms - spontaneously draw so others can tell what their picture represents (around 3 yrs old) 3. More realistic drawings - realism emerges as perception, language, and memory improves. Early Printing preschoolers cannot distinguish the difference between writing and drawing between ages of 4-6 is when children realize that language is for writing alot of children reverse their letters up until the second grade confuse mirror letter images such as b/d and p/q Individual Differences in Motor Skills tall, muscular bodied child tends to move more quickly and acquires skills earlier than a shorter, stockier child boys are ahead of girls with skills that emphasize power and force girls are better with balance and foot movement there is also the social pressure for boys to be very active and for girls to sit in the corner. Cognitive Development Piaget and Vygotskys theories Piagets Theory: The Preoperational Stage 2-7 years old increase in representational or symbolic activity Mental Representation: language as our most exible means of mental representation Piaget said that language was not the primary ingredient in childhood cognitive change sensorimotor activity leads to internal images of experience, which children then label with words Make-Believe Play: by pretending, children practice and strengthen their new representational schemes. in early pretending, toddlers only use realistic objects, and their rst acts imitate adults actions - they are not imaginative after 2 yrs old, children pretend with less realistic toys as their imagination is becoming more exible. in early pretending, make-believe is individual-based later on, children combine schemes with those of peers in sociodramatic play, the make believe with others that is underway by age 2.5 and increases rapidly in the new few years. Benets of Make-Believe Play cognitive and social skill development they learn to cooperate and work with others children who engage in sociodramatic play are socially competent improves mental abilities, attention, imagination, memory, logic, and laguage Symbol-Real World Relations to be able to draw and understand forms of representation, preschoolers must realize that each symbol related to a state in everyday life they cant do this until the age of 3 this is called dual representation - viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol. Berk pp. 200-208 Emotional Development between ages 2-6, children have a better understanding of their own emotions they begin to experience self-conscious emotions and empathy, which contribute to their sense of morality Understanding Emotion by age 4-5, they correctly judge the causes of many basic emotions (Hes happy because hes swinging high or Hes sad because he misses his mother.) tend to e
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