Chapter 5 Orientation, Training, And Development
Formal process of familiarizing 熟悉 new employees with the organization, their jobs,
and their work unit and embedding 嵌入 organizational values, beliefs, and accepted
The acquisition of skills, behaviors, and abilities to perform current work.
The acquisition of skills, behaviors, and abilities to perform future work or to solve an
Approach to orientation, training, and development
System approach involves four phases: (1) need assessment, (2) program design, (3)
training delivery, and (4) evaluation of training.
The scope of orientation, training, and development
Investments in training
$852 per employee each year on formal training
About 25 hours of training per person.
Organizations are also providing training on an “as need” basis and ensuring that it is linked
to actual work experiences.
Systematic orientation, training, and development
Phase 1: Conducting and need assessment
If workers consistently fail to achieve productivity objectives, or the organizations receive
an excessive number of customer complaints, suggest training.
The need assessment 需求评估 can occur at the organizational level (examining the
environment and strategy of the company to see where training emphasis ought to occur)
the task level (reviewing the activities of the work to determine the competencies needed);
and the person level (reviewing which employees need training.)
Phase 2: Designing the training program
1. Instructional objectives 教学目标
The skills and knowledge the company wants people to have and the behaviours
employees should acquire and/or change.
2. Trainee readiness and motivation
The consideration of a trainee’s maturity 成熟 and experience when assessing
him or her.
Trainees must recognize the need for new knowledge or skills, and they must
maintain a desire to learn as training progresses.
3. Principle of learning
Active practice and repetition
Massed 集中-versus-distributed learning
In most cases that spacing out 分割 the time of training will result in faster
learning and longer retention.
Feedback and reinforcement
As an employee’s training progresses, feedback serves two related purposes: (1)
knowledge of results, and (2) motivation.
Meaningfulness of presentation
Materials must connect the training with things that are already familiar to
Modeling Behaviour modification
Technique that if behaviour is rewards it will be exhibited more frequently
in the future.
Positively reinforced, behaviours will be exhibited more frequently in the
future, whereas behavior that is penalized or unrewarded will decrease in
4. Characteristics of trainers
Good trainers need to be knowledgeable about the subject, be well-prepared, have
good communication skills, and be enthusiastic with a sense of humor.
Phase 3: Implementing the training program
Training and development methods
Method by which employees are given hands-on experience with instructions from
their supervisor or other trainer.
Providing hands-on experience under normal working conditions
An opportunity for the trainer--- a manager or senior employee--- to build good
relationships with new employees.
OJT is often one of the most poorly implemented training methods. Three common
drawbacks include (1) the lack of well-structured training environment, (2) poor
training skills of managers, and (3) the absence of well-defined job performance
Apprenticeship training 学徒培训
System of training in which a worker entering the skilled trades is given thorough 全面
的 instruction and experience, both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical
aspects of the work.
Cooperative training and internship programs
Cooperative training 合作培训
Training program that combines practical on-the-job experience with formal
education (offered at university)
Internship program 实习计划
Programs jointly sponsored 主办的 by colleges, universities, and other
organizations that offers students the opportunity to gain real-life experience
while allowing them to find out how they will perform in work organizations.
Organizations benefit by getting student-employees with new ideas, energy, and
eagerness to accomplish their assignments.
Enables the maximum number of trainees to be handled by the minimum number of
Occurs when individuals work at their own pace at programmed instruction.
Methods are used to teach the skills and procedures required for a number of jobs.
Used when it is either impractical 不切实际的 or unwise 不智慧的 to train employees
on the actual equipment used on the job.
An obvious example is training employees to operate aircraft航空器, spacecraft航天器,
and other highly technical and expensive equipment.
Cheaper for employers to administer.
Saving anywhere from 30% to 70% of their training costs.
Own learning in their own time and space.
Saves travel and classroom costs.
Companies frequently supply their off-site staff with CDs and DVDs containing the
same training material employees on-site are able to download. On-the-job experiences
Methods of providing on-the-job experience include the following:
b) Mentoring 指导
Involves an informal relationship in which an executive coaches, advises, and
encourages a more junior employee.
c) Understudy 替补 assignments
Take over a manager’s job by helping the individual gain experience.
d) Job rotation 工作轮换
Provide a variety of work experiences, the broadened knowledge and
understanding required to manage more effectively.
e) Lateral transfer 横向转移
Involves horizontal movement through different departments, along with
upward movement in the organization.
f) Special projects and junior boards 小型董事会
Involved in the study of current organizational problems and in planning and
g) Action learning
Gives managers relea