MOS 3384 – Chapter 5: Recruitment
the long term employment contract between employer and employee, no longer
Result of increased competition, rapid information exchange, new management
tools, and focus on shareholder interests.
He planning horizon for firms is now much shorter
for employers in tight labour market retaining employees has become a
Recruitment is the process of attracting suitable candidates for actual or planned
focuses on getting the “right candidates” precisely when they are needed
balancing the number and quality of job applicants with the cost of recruiting and
the timeliness of the process determines the success of the recruitment plan.
every change in an organization’s strategy, the firm must also revise its skill-mix.
work environments May also undergo major changes requiring adaptive
the type of recruitment strategy adopted by a firm has profound impact on the
quality of its human capital, productivity, and culture.
Four important decisions about recruiting
1. How Much Importance Should We Assign to Human Capital?
successful firms recognize that human capital spells the difference between
success and failure.
Investors place a much higher value on companies that improve their bottom
lines through revenue growth rather than through simple cost cutting
Organizations facing simple, predictable environments and driven by a high-
volume, low-cost operational philosophy are more likely to have a low-
commitment strategy: hiring employees on an-needed basis, allocating them to
tasks which need little training, terminating them when those tasks are no longer
‘ocused on the short term and is governed by rules, rather than shared values. High-commitment human resource strategy (where the employer seeks a close
relationship with employees and where opportunities for personal and career
deve )pment are built into employment practices) is used most effectively in
organizations facing considerable environmental and technological uncertainty.
Relative costs—and not absolute costs—should be the primary focus.
Further, a cost model does not fully recognize the value-adding potential and
innovative contributions of employees
2. How Much Diversity Should We Aim For?
Monolithic organizations: organizations that predominantly employ people who
hold similar beliefs, values, and orientations
multicultural organizations value diversity and pluralism where both majority and
minority group members adopt some of the norms of the others. I:
all employees identify equally with the organization,
hiring from a larger, diverse pool of candidates offers greater choice of applicants
and larger pools of talent
3. How Much Resource Should We Allocate to Recruitment?
A small pool of recruits can rededuce the overall effecyiveness of selection
Costs of recruit ftent must also include the indirect costs of a bad hire (lost
customers, rehirind, training)
4. How Much Should We Invest in Employee Development?
Choice of internal versus external recruitment has profound implications for an
organization and affects the way it manages employee training and development.
A career is sequence of positions or a chain of interrelated occupations held by a
person over a re itively long period of time.
An occupation is a set of similar working tasks.
Demographic and socioeconomic variables continue interfere with career choices
Oarental socioeconomic level influence the starting point of the career pattern
and one of its major determinants.
Local occupational structure’ may impact on and constrain an individual’s
perception of career alternatives.
Holland’s classification of vocational interests
The realistic individual prefers activities requiring motor coordination, skill, and
physical strength, and tasks involving manipulation of tools
Avoid tasks involving interpersonal and verbal skills. Investigative
Analytical, curious, methodical, and precise.
I lack leadership skills.
Xpressive, nonconforming, introspective, and Artistic
laCk clerical skills.
Enjoy working with and helping others but tend to avoid sysjmatic and ordered
activities involving tools and machinery. <
Lack mechanical and scientific ability.
Ictivities that result in attainment of ecolomic gain or organizational goals, b
Ivoid symbolic or systematic activelties.
Systematically manipulating data,
Md reproducing material. 1
Characterized by a great concern for rules and regulations, self control, identify
with power and status and need affirmation through feedback
Void artistic activities.
Individuals are typically an amalgam of multiple interests. (Holland)
thiis model is applicable to people without regard to race, gender, or age.
Economic and labour market conditions act as major constraints in an indiidual’s
search for a specific career.
nOt available due to supply and demand cycles fluctuation
Background, interests, and perceptions of relevant labour market conditions
combine to influence a person’s consideration of a finite number of vocational
The fewer the alternatives offered by the surrounding environments, the more the
choice s directed by what is available rather than what the individual prefers/
Vocational maturity: the ability synthesize career-relevant knowledge with self-
Two major factors are believed to influence the person’s motivation and desires.
“Perceptions of the organization’s attributes.” “Organizational Choice” CONTENT THEORIES
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Model. }
Ob seeker will need to satisfy his or her physiological needs before looking for
deeper career Ifillment.
Hygiene factors: factors outside the work itself that influence employee
satisfaction nclude company policy and administration, supervision, relationship
with supervisor and co-workers, work conditions, and salary.
Ssociated with dissatisfaction at lack of presence
Associated with satisfaction
motivate workers, organizations should enrich jobs with these motivation factors,
I Motivation factors: aspects of he work itself, such as achievement, autonomy,
etc., that influence employee motivation to work
Need for power is the concern for reputation, responsibility, influence
Need for affiliation want to establish and maintain social relationships and prefer
cooperative rather than competitive situations.
Leed for achievement, which esire to establish and maintain high levels of
performance quality while taking personal responsibility for success or failure.
.R Skinner’s reinforcement or learning theory is that the environment determines
Expectancy theory is built on four premises: (1) behavior is result of both
personal and environmental factors; (2) belong to organization vs efforts to
influence (3) different rewards sought for different needs: (4) people decide how
to behave based on what they believe leads to the most desirable outcomes.
process of calculating the individual’s expectations is
E->P Expectancy, or “effort” leading to “performance” expectancy
P>O Successful performance will result in the receipt of a reward (outcome)
Valence: the value of a reward to the individual receiving it
Instrumentality: the likelihood hat a first level outcome will lead to a second level
outcome (good performance=raise)
Any attributes of the organization itself influence a job applicant’s choices:
Organization’s prestige: 1
Many people, being employed n a prestigious industry, occupation, and
organization implies social status/
Dentity often c associated with his or her employfient. Organization’s core values:
People seek to work in organizations with values similar to their own.
Organizations which engage in socially beneficial activities
find it easier to attract socially-oriented recruits, diversity attract minorities
image matching, in which they compare their own self-image to organizations
and select the one whose perceived image matches heir own
Organization’s management style:
Perceived management styledraws candidates who agree with or feel
comfortable under the style of management.
Overall organizational culture:
Personal, face-to-face relationships despite a hierarchical structure, thus creating
a family organizational culture.
I Eiffel tower culture is a bureaucratic structure emphasizing division of labour
and coordination of activities through a hierarchy.
Guided missile culture, which is egalitarian, impersonal, task-oriented, and
focused on technical expertise and team-work.
Incubator culture is radically different from the others, attempts to minimize
organizational structure maximize individual employee’s creativity,
?plicants consider a mix of alternatives in making their decisions, not just one
alternative in isolation from all otl )ssibilities.
Employer must take