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Chapter 9

The Human Mind- Psychology 2010 Chapter 9 Detailed Notes

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Psychology 2010A/B
Terry Biggs

Chapter 9LanguageCase Study Reading in the Olden Days McGuffeys First Eclectic Reader most popular reading textbooks in NA 1970s included Primer and Spelling Book five progressively more difficult readers by lesson 228students learned works for a truly erudite vocabulary Second Eclectic Reader encouraged to learn how to interpret diacritical markssymbols above letters thatindicate their correct pronunciation in a particular word could teach themselves how to read almost from start by sixth reader would be learning more complex aspects of reading ie proper intonation intonation diagrammed with lines set at angles to show how the voice wouldrise and fall also learn correct interpretation and use of punctuation and articulation theutterance of the element sounds of a language and their combinations Articulation the production of a languages sounds Diacritical Marks symbols that indicate the correct pronunciation of letters in aparticular wordMain theories of how Language is constructedThe Structure of Language we are able to attend to one out of several possible objects trains of thoughts attention like a spotlight that highlights some aspects of a situation leaves other inbackground all aspects of situation are available simultaneously can shift our attention from one aspect to another and consider relationships between themWilhelm Wundt 18321920 founded the first lab in psychology first to do important research into the psychology of language anticipated contemporary theoriesstructure of language discussion relation between experience and the words used to describe it used tree diagramsdescribe relationships between different parts of our overallexperience of a situationTree Diagram a description of a process that proceeds from one level at which a number ofrelations are simultaneously present to other levels at which those relations are orderedseriallyie youre listening to musicexperience relations between elements that you can put intowords and can be diagrammedmusic can be described as subject of a sentence and itsloudnesspredicate as in the music is loud process of speechproceeds from one level at which a number of relations aresimultaneously present to another level at which these relations are ordered serially as asuccession of word in a sentence ie subject predicate hearingthe music is loud reconstruct the experience by reversing process and moving from the level ofwords in succession to the level where the two elements are present simultaneously his model is similar to Noam Chomskys linguistic theoriesTransformational GrammarChompsky among the ten most cited writers in all of the humanities only living member of topten Syntactic Structures 1957 considered the way we produce sentences sentence grammatical utterance and is recognized as such by a native speaker of thelanguage set of possible sentences in a language is infinite Language open ended verbal communication that consists of all possible sentences speech those sentences that are actually spoke only a small subset of language meaning there must be a set of rulesa grammar that everyone uses to generatesentences in hisher language must be capable of producing all possible sentences in language a principle able to generate infinite set of sentences makes a point that grammatical utterance need not be a meaningful utterance Colourless green ideas sleep furiously collection of words is still grammatical this led to the distinction between semantics and grammar the study of meaning processes that made a sentence grammatical are different from the processes thatmake a sentence meaningful considered the nature of a grammar for natural language such as English rejected idea that finite state grammar could generate all the sentences in a language review of finite state grammarChapter 8 pg 244 railroad diagrams each number in the diagram pg 244 is a railroad station and each arrow is atrack that you follow from one station to another finite state grammar is actually a set of rules for generating strings of letters is capable of generating all the strings of letters in the diagram these are letter strings that are consistent with this particular grammar positive vs negative instances in order to do so you would need to know the grammar in order to beable to make proper distinctions goes on with implicit and explicit learning relation a critical feature of a finite state grammar is that every word in a sentence isproduced in a sequence starting with the first word and ending with the last railroad diagram
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