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Chapter 9

The Human Mind- Psychology 2010 Chapter 9 Detailed Notes


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2010A/B
Professor
Terry Biggs
Chapter
9

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Chapter9Language
CaseStudy:ReadingintheOldenDays
McGuffey’sFirstEclecticReader
mostpopularreadingtextbooksinNA1970s
includedPrimerandSpellingBook>+fiveprogressivelymoredifficultreaders
bylesson228>studentslearnedworksforatrulyeruditevocabulary
SecondEclecticReader
encouragedtolearnhowtointerpretdiacriticalmarks:symbolsabovelettersthat
indicatetheircorrectpronunciationinaparticularword
couldteachthemselveshowtoreadalmostfromstart
bysixthreader
wouldbelearningmorecomplexaspectsofreading,i.e.properintonation
intonation:diagrammedwithlinessetatanglestoshowhowthevoicewould
riseandfall
alsolearncorrectinterpretationanduseofpunctuationandarticulation(the
utteranceoftheelementsoundsofalanguageandtheircombinations)
Articulation:theproductionofalanguagessounds
DiacriticalMarks:symbolsthatindicatethecorrectpronunciationoflettersina
particularword
MaintheoriesofhowLanguageisconstructed:
TheStructureofLanguage
weareabletoattendtooneoutofseveralpossibleobjects/trainsofthoughts
attention:likeaspotlightthathighlightssomeaspectsofasituation,leavesotherin
background
allaspectsofsituationareavailablesimultaneously
canshiftourattentionfromoneaspecttoanotherandconsiderrelationshipsbetweenthem
WilhelmWundt(18321920)
foundedthefirstlabinpsychology
firsttodoimportantresearchintothepsychologyoflanguage
anticipatedcontemporarytheoriesstructureoflanguage
discussion:relationbetweenexperienceandthewordsusedtodescribeit
usedtreediagrams>describerelationshipsbetweendifferentpartsofouroverall
experienceofasituation
TreeDiagram:adescriptionofaprocessthatproceedsfromonelevelatwhichanumberof
relationsaresimultaneouslypresenttootherlevelsatwhichthoserelationsareordered
serially
i.e.you’relisteningtomusic>experience:relationsbetweenelementsthatyoucanputinto
wordsandcanbediagrammed>musiccanbedescribedassubjectofasentenceandit’s
loudness=predicate(asinthemusicisloud)
processofspeech>proceedsfromonelevelatwhichanumberofrelationsare
simultaneouslypresenttoanotherlevelatwhichtheserelationsareorderedseriallyasa
successionofwordinasentencei.e.subject,predicate

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hearing:themusicisloud
reconstructtheexperiencebyreversingprocessandmovingfromthelevelof
wordsinsuccessiontothelevelwherethetwoelementsarepresentsimultaneously
hismodelissimilarto;
NoamChomsky'slinguistictheories
TransformationalGrammar
Chompsky
amongthetenmostcitedwritersinallofthehumanities+onlylivingmemberoftop
ten
SyntacticStructures1957consideredthewayweproducesentences
sentence:grammaticalutteranceandisrecognizedassuchbyanativespeakerofthe
language
setofpossiblesentencesinalanguageisinfinite
Language:openendedverbalcommunicationthatconsistsofallpossiblesentences
speech:thosesentencesthatareactuallyspoke,onlyasmallsubsetoflanguage
meaning:theremustbeasetofrulesagrammarthateveryoneusestogenerate
sentencesinhis/herlanguage
mustbecapableofproducingallpossiblesentencesinlanguage
aprincipleabletogenerateinfinitesetofsentences
makesapointthatgrammaticalutteranceneednotbeameaningfulutterance
Colourlessgreenideassleepfuriously
collectionofwordsisstillgrammatical
thisledtothedistinctionbetweensemanticsandgrammar
thestudyofmeaning
processesthatmadeasentencegrammaticalaredifferentfromtheprocessesthat
makeasentencemeaningful
consideredthenatureofagrammarfornaturallanguagesuchasEnglish
rejectedideathatfinitestategrammarcouldgenerateallthesentencesinalanguage
reviewoffinitestategrammarChapter8pg.244
railroaddiagrams
eachnumberinthediagram(pg244)isarailroadstationandeacharrowisa
trackthatyoufollowfromonestationtoanother
finitestategrammarisactuallyasetofrulesforgeneratingstringsofletters
>iscapableofgeneratingallthestringsoflettersinthediagram
theseareletterstringsthatareconsistentwiththisparticulargrammar
positivevs.negativeinstances
inordertodosoyouwouldneedtoknowthegrammarinordertobe
abletomakeproperdistinctions
goesonwithimplicitandexplicitlearning
relation:acriticalfeatureofafinitestategrammaristhateverywordinasentenceis
producedinasequencestartingwiththefirstwordandendingwiththelast
railroaddiagram

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ifwehadtolearnallusingafinitestategrammar(FSG),wewouldneedto
listentoseveralsentencesasecondformorethan100yearsbeforewehadlearnedenough
sentencestoallowustospeakandunderstandasignificantportionofEnglish
hisobjection:itisimpossibletoconstructonethatwillgenerateallandonlythe
grammaticalutterancesofanaturallanguage
FSGsaretoosimpletounderliecomplexityofnaturallanguage
naturallanguagescontainsentencesthatareembeddedwithinothersentences
i.e.S=unlimitednumberofpossiblesentencesthatcouldbeinsertedatthatpointin
theexample
grammarmustbeabletogeneratesuchsentences,butchomskybelievedthat
itwasimpossibleforFSGtodoso
ProblemswithFSG:
theyoperateatonlyonelevel
theygeneratesentencesbyaprocessthatmovesonlyfromlefttoright
Chomsky'salternative:
topdownprocess>usesphrasestructurerulesandgrammaticaltransformations
PhaseStructureRules>symbolsandrewriterules(rulesdescribingtheway
symbolscanberewrittenasothersymbols)
1.Sentence(S)>NounPhrase(NP)>VerbPhrase(VP)
2.NP>Article(art)+Noun(N)
3.VP>Verb(V)+NP
4.art>a,the
5.N>girl,car,boy,etc.
6.V>drives,likes,helpsetc.
theserulesdescribethewaysymbolsi.e.Scanberewrittenasothersymbolsi.e.NP
VParecapableofgeneratinganinfinite#ofsentences
derivationofsentencecanbeshownusingtreediagrams
eachstageyieldsdifferentstringi.e.NP+VPandfinalsequenceofwords
generatediscalledterminalstring
therearealsorulesthatoperateonentirestringstoconvertthemintonewstrings
Grammaticaltransformations:rulesoperatingonentirestringsofsymbolsto
convertthemtonewstrings
Passivetransformationexample:
NP1+V+NP2
e.g.JamesadmiredJohnson
passivetransformation(JOhnson)wasadmiredbyJames>itconvertsthestring
underlyingterminalstringtoproducesomethinglike:
NP2+tobe+V+by+NP1
reversesorderofthetwonounphrasesandinsertsaformofverb(tobe)andword
(by)
passivetransformationisanexampleofoptionaltransformation
notnecessaryfortransformationstobeappliedinordertomakeasentence
grammatical
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