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Chapter 16

Psychology 2040A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 16: Schizophrenia, Age 12, Teratology

Course Code
Laura Reid

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Chapter 16 Conclusions
Theme 1: Nature and Nurture: All Interaction, All the Time
Nature: biological characteristics with which the child enters the world
Nurture: child-rearing experiences provided by parents, care-giver-, and other adults
Children are active participants in their own development
-Seek out their own experiences, based on their inclinations and interests.
-They influence other people’s behavior toward them
-From birth onward, their nature influences the nurture they receive
Nature and Nurture Begin Interacting Before Birth
When some things go wrong the interaction of nature and nurture is all too evident.
-Effects of teratogens 致致
-Toxins 致 致 in the general environment, such as mercury 致 致 , radiation, and air
-Depends on innumerable interactions among the genetics of the mother, the
genetics of the fetus, and a host of environmental factors.
The interaction of nature and nurture during the prenatal period is evident in fetal
-The experience of hearing their mother’s voice while they are in the womb leads
newborns to prefer her voice to that of other women once they enter the world
-Learn taste preferences from their mother’s diet during pregnancy
Infants’ Nature Elicits Nurture
Nature equips babies with a host of qualities that elicit appropriate nurture from
parents and other caregivers:
-Baby are cute most people enjoy watching and interacting with them
-Their looking and smiling at other people motivates others to feel warmly toward
them and to care for them
-Their emotional expressions guide caregivers’ efforts to figure out what to do to
make them happy and comfortable
-Their attentiveness to sights and sounds that they find interesting encourages
others to talk to them and to provide the stimulation necessary for learning
Timing Matters
The effects of an experience on development depend on the state of the organism at
the time of the experience
-Rubella: if early in pregnancy, when the developing visual and auditory systems
are at a particularly sensitive point, her baby may be born deaf or blind; if she
comes down with the same disease later in pregnancy, no damage will occur
Timing influences many aspects of development in the months and years following
-“use it or lose it”: for normal development to occur, children must encounter the
relevant experiences during a certain window of time
-Cross-eyedness surgery is best done early before age of 3 because it allows
normal development of relevant neural pathways in the brain

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-Auditory development: until 8 months of age, infants can discriminate between
phonemes regardless of whether they appear in the language the infants hear
daily. By age 12, infants lose the ability to hear the difference between similar
sounds that they do not ordinarily encounter or that are not meaning fully different
in their native language
-Grammatical development: early exposure results in more complete grammatical
mastery. 致致致致 7致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致7-11 致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致致
-The importance of normal early experience is evident in social, emotional, and
intellectual development. Infants and toddlers who do not have an emotional
connection with any caregiver often have poor intellectual and social
development in later ages.
In many aspects of the development of perception, language, intelligence, emotions,
and social behavior, the timing of experience is crucial: normal early experience is
vital for successful later development.
Nature Does Not Reveal Itself All at Once
Many genetically influenced properties do not become evident until middle childhood,
adolescence, or adulthood.
-Physical changes occur at puberty
-Certain types of brain damage: these children’s performance on IQ tests is
comparable to that of other children through age 6 years, falls considerably
behind thereafter
-Schizophrenia 致致致致, is highly influenced by genes inherited at conception, but most
people who become schizophrenic do not do so until late adolescence or early
adulthood. The only children with a substantial likelihood of becoming
schizophrenic are those who have a biological parent who is schizophrenic and
who also grow up in a troubled family
The children’s nature and the nurture they receive is crucial
Everything Influences Everything
Factors influence self-esteem
-Genes matter; the closer the biological relation between two children or
adolescents, the more similar their degree of self-esteem is likely to be. Genes
influence a wide range of other characteristics that themselves influence self-
esteem. Eg., genes strongly affect attractiveness, athletic talent, and academic
success, all of which contribute to self-esteem
-Support from one’s family and peers contribute in a positive way; poverty and
unpopularity contribute in a negative way
-Values of the broader society
-East Asian societies tend to emphasize the importance of self-criticism people
with less self-esteem than do peers in Western societies
Complex interactions are characteristic of development in all areas
-Parental involvement in schoo is more closely related to academic achievement
in low-income and African-American families than in more affluent and Euro-
American families.

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Children’s nature- their genes, personal characteristics, and behavioral
tendencies-interact with the nurture they receive from parents, teachers,
peers, the broader society, and the physical environment in ways that shape
their self-esteem, intellect, actions, and other qualities.
Theme 2: Children Play Active Roles in Their Own Development
-Children are physically active even before they leave the womb; the kicking that
thrills prospective parents is just the most obvious example
-Infants’ and older children’s actions also produce reactions in other people, which
further shape the children’s development
Self-Initiated Activity
-Even in the womb, normal development depends on the fetus’s being active
-From the day they are born, infants display looking preferences that guide their
attention to the most informative aspects of the environment and thus enhace
their learning
a. Looking at objects>at blank fields
b. Looking at moving objects>at stationary ones
c. Looking at the edges of objects>at their interiors(致致)
d. Looking at faces, especially their mother’s
Infant’s ability to interact with the environment expands greatly during the first year
-3 mos: most infants become able to follow moving objects fairly smoothly with
their eyes, which improves their ability to follow the actions occurring around
-6 or 7 mos: become able to crawl on their bellies and soon after, on their hands
and knees; as a result, they no longer have to wait or the world to come to them
-8 or mos: can hold up their heads, which allows them to reach accurately for
objects even when they are not being supported
-13 or 14 mos: beginning to walk independently, opening a new era in their
exploration of the world
As development proceeds, children’s self-initiated activity extends to new domains
such as language
-Toddlers delight in telling their parents the names of objects for no apparent
reason beyond the joy of doing so
-They practice talking in their cribs, even when nobody else Is present to hear
-Invent gestures and words to represent objects and events
-Children become skilled at initiating conversations that bring them information,
allow them to express their feelings and desires and help them regulate their
The effects of self-initiated activities are seen at older ages in other areas, such as
self-socialization and antisocial behavior
-Boys and girls choose to play predominantly with members of their own gender,
especially between the ages of 6 and 10 years.
-Gender segregation imposed by adults, arises from differences in the kinds of
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