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Chapter 11

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2550A/B
Professor
James M Olson
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER11 PartIV:TheBehavioralConditioningLevel - Behaviorally orientedworkerstriedtoapplytheirideasandmethodstopeople andtoissuesrelevanttopersonalityandpersonality change - Begantotreatsome ofthe mostdifficultbehavioraland personality problemsthathadresisted otherformsoftherapy o Eg.Theywere allowedtotrytotreathospitalizedpeoplewhowere severelydisturbedastherewaslittle tolosebyattemptingexperimentalinnovationssinceno othermethodshadprovedsuccessful CharacteristicsofBehavioralAssessments - Behavioralapproachesfocusonthespecificexternalconditionsandlearningprocessesthatmightgovernhisorherbehavior - Note:allscientificpsychologicalapproachesarebasedon behavioralobservations –givinganswerson personality inventoriesorsayingwhatan inkblotlookslikeare behaviorsjustasmustascrying,running,orfighting - Inmostpersonalityassessments– observedbehavioursserve ashighlyindirect signsofthetraitsormotivesthatmight underliethem - Inbehaviorassessments –theobserved behavioristreatedasa sample,andinterestisfocusedon how thespecificsampledbehaviorisaffectedbyalterationsin conditions CaseExample:Conditions‘Controlling;GaryW.’sAnxiety - Illustratesthe generalstrategy ofbehaviourassessment - Ratherthan seeka portraitofgary’spersonalityandbehaviour‘in general’oranestimated‘average’, the focusisatthe specificbehaviorallevelofanalysis - Thebehaviourpatternselectedtostudy dependson the particularproblembeinginvestigated o Clinicalsituations– clientindicatesthe priorities o Researchcontexts –selectedbyinvestigator - Duringhisfirstsemesterofgradschool,gary startinggoingtotheschool’scounselingcenter - Hewasaskedtolistandrankhisthree distressingproblemsthat hewantedtochangein orderofimportance - ‘feelinganxiousandlosingmygrip’washisgreatestproblem - Hewasaskedtospecifywhatchangesindicatedhewasorwasnotanxious o Answer= feltchanges inheartrate,becametense,perspired, difficulttospeakcoherently - Toexplore covariation betweenincreasesanddecreasesinthisstateandchangesinstimulusconditions,garywasaskingtokeepan hour-by-hourdiary for2weeks - Anxietyoccurredprimarilyin connectionwithpublicspeakingoccasions –specificallyin the classroom - Afterdeterminingthiscovariation, the assessorwantedtoidentifythe specificcomponentsofthe publicspeakingsituation thatledtomore orlessanxiety - Note:the assessmentrestrictsitselftosomeclearlydescribedproblemsandtriestoanalyzethemin objectivetermswithoutgoingbeyondthe observedrelations - ThisassessmentofGary’sanxietyillustratesone rathercrudewaytostudystimulus-responsecovariations DirectBehaviourMeasurement - Importanttosample andobserve behaviourin carefullystructured,lifelikesituations - Inclinicalapplications,directobservationsmaygivebothclientandassessoranopportunitytoasseslife problemsandto selecttreatment objectives - Directobservationsofbehavioursamplesalsomay beusedtoassessthe relative efficacy ofvarioustreatmentprocedures - Typesofdata collectedinbehavioralapproachinclude: o Situationalsamplesofbothverbaland nonverbal o Physiologicalmeasurementsofemotionalreactions - Acomprehensiveassessmentoftenincludesananalysisofeffective rewardsorreinforcingstimuliintheperson’slife SituationalBehaviorSampling - Behaviorsampling:isbasicformuch oftheworkatthislevel - Rolesoffearandavoidancebehaviour - muchattention hasbeengiventoassessingthe strengthofdiverseavoidancebehaviorsreliablyin clinicalsituations - Claustrophobicbehaviour– fearofclosedspaces –wasmeasuredbyaskingeachperson tositina cubicle containinglargefrenchwindows openingintoa balcony o Assessorshutthewindowsandslowly movedthe large screenclosertotheperson o Measureofclaustrophobiawasthe leastdistanceatwhichtheperson couldtoleratethescreen - Directbehavioursamplinghasalsobeenusedextensivelyintheanalysisofpsychoticbehaviour - Manybehaviorally orientedcliniciansroutinelyasktheirclienttokeepspecific recordslistingtheexactconditionsunder whichtheiranxietiesandproblemsseemto increaseordecrease FindingEffectiveRewards - Behaviourassessments,analyzetheconditionsthatregulate ordeterminewhatpeople do - Theyhavetofindeffective rewardsorreinforcersthat maybeinfluencinga person’sbehaviour o Ifdiscovered,thesereinforcesalsoserve asincentivesintherapy programstohelpmodifybehaviourin morepositive oradvantageousdirections - Reinforcementvalue ofparticularstimulialso maybeassesseddirectlyby observingtheireffectson theindividual’sperformance - Primaryreinforcers(eg.Food)andgeneralizedconditionedreinforcers(praise,socialapproval,money)areeffective for mostpeople - Differentialreinforcement:reinforcingappropriate behaviourbutnotinappropriatebehaviour,toreduce the lattertoa sociallyacceptablelevel - Sometimesdifficulttofindpotentreinforcersthatarefeasible tomanipulate - Withdisturbedgroupsmanyoftheusualreinforcersprovetobeineffective,especiallywithpeoplewhohave spentmanyyears livingin the backwardsofa mental hospital - Azrinandallyon(1965)shoedhoweffectivereinforcescan bediscoveredevenforunmotivatedpsychoticpatients o Patientswere observeddirectly inthewardtodiscovertheirmostfrequentbehavioursinsituationsthatpermittedthemfreedomtodowhatthey wished o Observerscarefullyrecordedthe things theydid, ortriedtodo, withoutpressuresfromthestaff o Frequency oftheactivitiesprovidedanindexoftheirpotentialvaluesasreinforcers o Sixcategorieswereestablished:  Privacy –choice ofbedroomoreatinggroup, personalcabinet,room-dividerscreen  Commissaryitems  Leavefromward  Socialinteraction withstaff  Recreationalopportunities –exclusive useofradioortv, movies,dances,entertainment  Devotionalopportunities o Patientscouldobtaineach ofthe reinforcerswithaspecificnumberof tokens whichtheyearnedby participatinginsuchrehabilitative functionsasself-care andjobtraining o Changestointeractsociallywiththe staff,theopportunityforrecreation,andspiritualdevotionare mostunpopular - Therefore,withchronichospitalizedpatientsreinforcerssuchasprivacy,autonomy,andfreedom mightbe mosteffective AssessingConditionsControllingBehavior - Toassessbehaviorfully,behaviortheoristsbelievethatwe havetoidentify theconditionsthatcontrolit - Behaviorally orientedpsychologiststesttheconditionsbyintroducinga change andobservingwhether ornotitproducesthe expectedmodification inbehaviour - Ifwe believethatachild’sreadingdifficultyiscausedbyanxietyaboutpressure toreadfromhermother,weshouldtry toshowthatifthe mother reducesherpressure,it willyieldtheexpectedimprovementin reading - Tounderstandbehaviourfully,weneedtoknowthe conditionsthatcauseit - Arigiddistinction betweenbehaviorassessmentandtreatmentisneither meaningfulnorpossible - Amain characteristicoftheseassessmentmethodsisthattheyarelinkedcloselytobehaviourchangeandcannotreally beseparatedfromit - Functionalanalysis:analysesofthe precisecovariationsbetweenchangesinstimulusconditionsandchangesinaselectedbehaviourpattern o Foundation ofbehaviorassessment,andareillustratedmostclearlyinstudiesthattrytochange selectedbehaviourpattern FunctionalAnalyses:BasicMethod - Skinner’sworkisbasedonthepremise thata genuinescienceof humanbehaviourisnotonly possiblebutdesirable - Inhisview,science shouldtrytopredictanddetermineexperimentallythebehaviouroftheindividualorganism - Heproposedfunctionalanalysisofthe organismasa behavingsystem o Triestolinkthe organism’sbehaviourtothe precise conditionsthatcontrolor determineit - Hisapproachconcentratesontheobservablecovariationsbetweenindependentvariables (stimulusevents)anddependentvariables(response patterns) - Variableina functionalanalysismustbeexternal,observable,anddescribedin physicalandquantitativeterms(AccordingtoSkinner) - Skinnercontentsthatthe lab offersthe bestchance ofobtainingascientificanalysisofbehaviour –variablescan bebroughtunderthe controlofexperimental manipulation - Intohisposition,heincorporatedmany conceptsregardingclassicalconditioning,butheconcentratingon operantconditioningandshoweditspotentialforpowerful real-lifeapplications - Hebelievesthatmosthumansocialbehaviourconsistsoffreelyemittedresponsepatternsoroperants - Researchon operantconditioning o Animalorperson freely performing(emitting)operantresponses o Experimenterhaspreselecteda particularclassofresponsestoreinforce o Whentheselectedoperantresponseismade,the reinforcementoccurs - The outcomea person obtainsfora particularbehaviourinfluencehisorherfuturebehaviour - Bychangingthe outcomesofresponses,reinforcing previously unreinforcedbehaviours ordiscontinuingreinforcementforotherbehaviours,evenbehaviourpatterns thatseemdeeplyingrainedmaybechanged - Manypsychologistshavetriedtomodifymaladaptive behaviourbyaltering the consequencestowhichitleads - Workingwithpeoplewhohave severebehaviouralproblems o Attempttoremove reinforcementfordisadvantageousbehavioursandtomake attention,praise,andotherreinforcementcontingenton the occurrence of moreadaptiveadvantageousbehaviour o Learningprogramsfollow definitivesteps: 1. Problembehaviourisdefinedandtheir frequencyinanaturalisticcontextismeasured 2. Oneobservesandrecordsthe reinforcingconsequencesthatseemtomaintainthebehaviour 3. Relearningprogramisdesignedandputintoeffectbasedon #2 4. Resultingchangesare assessedoveraperiodoftime FunctionalAnalyses:CaseExample - Annwasabright4yroldfromupper-middle-classbackground - Increasinglyisolatedherselffromthe otherchildrenin nurseryschool - Atthesametime,she developedvariousingenioustechniquestogainprolongedattention formadultsaroundher - Gradually,hereffortsto maintainadultattentionledhertobecomeextremelyisolatedfrom otherchildren - The moredistressingandproblematicAnn’sbehaviourbecame,the moreitelicitedinterestedandcloseattention formherconcernedteachers - Annwasslippingintoaviciouscycle,soatherapeuticplanwasformedsoshe nolongerreceivedadultattentionfor herwithdrawalfrompeers - Adultswouldonlygive herattention whensheinteractedwithotherchildren - Notice thatinthebaseline periodbeforethe newresponse-reinforcementcontingencieswereinstituted, Annwasspending: o about10%ofherschooltimeinteractingwithotherkids o 40%withadults o ½time wasspentalone - whencontingenciesofreinforcement werechanged,Ann quickly changesaswell - onthefirstdayofthisnewarrangement,Annspent~60%ofhertimewithpeers - toassesstheeffectsofreinforcement,theprocedureswere reversedon days 12-16 o Ann’spreviousbehavioursreappearedimmediately - Day17–backtoplayingwiththe childrenforapproximately60%oftime - Attheendofthe reinforcementprocedure(day25),postchecksindicatedAnn’sincreasedplaywithpeerswasrelativelystable - Acompleteanalysismustconsidertotal relationsamongstimulusconditionsratherthan focusonsingle aspects ofreinforcementin isolation o Thisexample showedthatAnnwashighlydiscriminativeatparticulartimesandcircumstancesduringwhichshe becomeself-destructive ChangingEmotionalReactions - Considersome maintechniquesandfindingsofbehaviortherapybasedon the conceptsoftheclassiclearning-conditioningtheories - First, focuson methodsdesignedtochangepreviouslylearneddisadvantageousemotionalrelationssuchasanxiety Desensitization:OvercomingAnxiety - Mosttherapistswereafraidthatsymptomsubstitution wouldoccuriftheytriedtoremove the problematicbehaviours o ThisconcernstemsfromFreudianassumptionthatattemptsto changeproblematicbehaviourwithoutfirstgettingatunconsciouscauseswouldleadtoother problemsthatwouldbeevenworsethanthe originalones  basedon the medicalmodelofillness – distinguishbetweenobservedbehaviourandpotentialcause - Wolpe wasa skepti
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