Psychology 2660A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Thermodynamics, Workplace Violence, Gender Role

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Chapter 10: Organizational attitudes and behaviour
Job satisfaction
Job satisfaction is the degree of pleasure an employee derives from his or her job
Everyone differs in their expectations from a job and thus will differ in their reactions to them
Global job satisfaction overall feelings about a job
Job facet satisfaction feelings about supervisors, coworkers, promotional opportunities, pay, etc
Job descriptive index is used to measure job satisfaction; regarded with professional esteem within I/O
psych
o Likewise, the Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire is highly regarded within the profession
Very dissatisfied --- very satisfied
People high in positive affect = active, alert, enthusiastic, inspired, interested, optimistic, persevere
High in negative affect = pessimistic
Objective job conditions = level of pay, hours of work, and physical working conditions
Figure 10-2 Model of job satisfaction
o Positive affectivity & Objective job circumstances interpretation of job circumstances job
satisfaction
Job satisfaction was found to correlate…
o .29 with neuroticism
o .25 with extraversion
o .02 with openness
o .17 with agreeableness
o .26 with conscientiousness
As a set, these big 5 personality traits has a multiple correlation coefficient of .41 with job satisfaction
Feelings of job satisfaction are inheritable; also are related both to the objective condition of work and
to the worker’s personality
Study: asked to judge to heaviness of several weights
o The judgment of the target item was found to be influenced by the weight of the previous item
o Likewise, our judgments are embedded in a relative context and cannot be made independently
of that context
Even though moods may not be directly controllable given their somewhat vague and diffuse causes,
organizations may be more successful in elevating employees’ moods than in raising their overall level
of job satisfaction
Five categories of emotions all of which are or can be manifested in the workplace
o Positive happiness, love, pride
o Negative sadness, hopelessness, despair
o Existential anxiety, guilt, shame
o Nasty anger, envy, jealousy
o Empathetic gratitude, compassion, sympathy
Moods and emotions are related but not identical to attitudes
Supervisors exert substantial influence on the moods of their employees
o Employees felt more negative and less positive emotions when interacting with supervisors than
when interacting with clients/customers/coworkers
Employees who felt compelled to regulate their emotions (hide negative, fake positive) experienced
more stress and lower satisfaction
Relationship between job satisfaction and job performance
o Not very strong; .30
o Organizational attempts to enhance both JS and JP simultaneously will likely be unsuccessful
Withdrawal behaviour absence (temporary) and turnover (permanent)
o The more people dislike their job, the more likely they are to quit;
o Satisfaction-turnover = -.40
o This is only when alternative employment is readily available because a bad job is better than
no job
Correlation between JS and absence is smaller: -.25
o When you like your job you will give more effort to make it to work, even with a mild cold
Job involvement
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Job involvement is the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his or her work and the
importance of work to one’s self image
Correlation between job involvement and…
o Overall job satisfaction = .45
o Performance = .09
o Turnover = -.13
o Conscientiousness = .53
Job involvement is more strongly related to how people view their work and their approach to it and less
related to how well they perform their jobs
Work commitment
Work commitment is the extent to which an employee feels a sense of allegiance and loyalty to one or
more targets within the sphere of employment
o Targets = occupation or profession, the employing organization, a work team
Three components to one’s job:
o Affective emotional attachment allegiance based on liking the target
o Continuance costs associated with leaving the target based on unlikeliness of finding
meaning elsewhere
o Normative feelings of obligation based on loyalty
Paradox of commitment
o Organizational changes resulting in job loss can undermine employee commitment, yet
commitment is essential for any re-configured organization
Committed employees are more likely to remain with the organization
Occupational commitment emotional connection that the person feels with the occupation
Organizational commitment sense of loyalty to one’s particular employer
Job involvement loyalty to one’s own job
Figure 10-5 Concentric circle model of work commitment
o Inside to outside:
Work ethic
Occupational commitment
Continuance organizational commitment
Affective organizational commitment
Job involvement
o Inner forms are more dispositional in nature; outer forms are determined more by situational
factors
Correlations between organizational commitment and…
o Overall JS = .53
o Turnover = -.28
o Conscientiousness = .67
o Job involvement = .50
o Job performance = .20
Performance is determined by ability, motivation, and situation constraints
Turnover is determined by external economic variables
Organizational justice
Organizational justice is concerned with the fair treatment of people in organizations
Justice = the first virtue of social institutions
Categories of organizational justice:
o Distributive justice
o Procedural justice
o Interactional justice
Interpersonal justice
Informational justice
Distributive justice
Distributive justice refers to the fairness of the outcomes, results, or ends achieved; distributed
among members of an organization
Three rules:
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Document Summary

Job satisfaction is the degree of pleasure an employee derives from his or her job. Everyone differs in their expectations from a job and thus will differ in their reactions to them. Global job satisfaction overall feelings about a job. Job facet satisfaction feelings about supervisors, coworkers, promotional opportunities, pay, etc. Job descriptive index is used to measure job satisfaction; regarded with professional esteem within i/o psych: likewise, the minnesota satisfaction questionnaire is highly regarded within the profession. People high in positive affect = active, alert, enthusiastic, inspired, interested, optimistic, persevere. Objective job conditions = level of pay, hours of work, and physical working conditions. Figure 10-2 model of job satisfaction: positive affectivity & objective job circumstances interpretation of job circumstances job satisfaction. As a set, these big 5 personality traits has a multiple correlation coefficient of . 41 with job satisfaction.

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