Textbook Notes (368,214)
Canada (161,710)
Psychology (4,889)
Psychology 1000 (1,620)
Dr.Mike (707)
Chapter 10

Psychology Chapter 10 Intelligence.docx

6 Pages
69 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Semester
Spring

Description
Psychology Chapter 10: Intelligence •Intelligence--> the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment •Intelligence is not a concrete existence but instead a socially constructed concept •Sir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental Ability o Believed that intelligence was inherited and that the generation now is smarter than the generation before o Is bias as he dismissed the fact that the more successful individuals come from more privileged environments o Demonstrated a biological basis for intelligence by measuring brain size, reaction time, etc o His approach is disfavoured because his measures of nervous system efficiency proved unrelated to socially relevant measures of mental ability •Alfred Binet's Mental Tests o Interested in solving a problem instead of forming a theory: He wanted to identify children that does not benefit from the normal public schooling so some other form of special education can be arranged for them o Made two assumptions about intelligence • Mental abilities develop with age • The rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person and is fairly constant over time o Mental age--> whether a person performs a correct mental task for his or her age (ex. if a 6-year old child can perform a task that a 9 year old child can do, then the 6year old child has a mental age of a 9 year old) o Intelligence quotient (IQ)--> ratio of mental age to chronological age; developed by William Stern o Today's tests no longer uses the concepts of mental age as it is less useful on adults than to children. • Intellectual skills show an actual decline at advanced ages so mental age is not the most correct way to measure intelligence •Summary for Historical Intelligence Industries o Stanford-Binet --> Army Alpha--> Army Beta --> Weschsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) The Nature of Intelligence •Psychologists have used two major approaches in the study of intelligence o Psychometric approach --> attempts to map the structure of intellect and to discover the kinds of mental competencies that underlie test performance o Cognitive processes approach--> studies the specific thought processes that underlie those mental competencies •Psychometrics--> statistical study of psychological tests; tries to identify and measure the abilities that underlie individual differences in performance o Factor Analysis--> a statistical technique reduces a large number of measures to a smaller number of clusters, or factors, with each cluster containing variables that correlate highly with one another but less highly with variables in other clusters • Cannot identify what the test is measuring o g Factor--> (general intelligence) whatever special abilities might be required to perform that particular task ( the idea that two abilities are clearly different however they reflect a basic/ general mental capacity that contributes to them) • This factor cuts through all tasks (constitutes the core of intelligence) • Predictor of both academic and job performance o Primary mental abilities --> human mental performance depends not on a general factor but rather on seven distinct abilities • Educators are more interested in primary mental abilities • Help increase specific mental abilities that are identifiable in children • Overall general mental ability measures are not useful for practical uses o The g factor is broken down into two subtypes: • Crystallized intelligence (gc) --> ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems (ex. vocabulary and info tests)  Depends on the ability to retrieve previously learned information and problem-solving schemas from long-term memory • Fluid Intelligence (gf--> ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations for which personal experience doesn’t provide a solution  Dependent on efficient functioning of the central nervous system rather than prior experience and cultural context  Perceive relations among stimulus patterns and draw inferences from relationships  Requires the abilities to reason abstractly, think logically, and manage info in short term memory  We progress from fluid intelligence to depending more on crystallized intelligence o Three Stratum Theory of Cognitive Abilities--> establishes three levels of mental skills: general, broad, and narrow arranged in a hierarchical model Cognitive Approaches • Cognitive process theories--> explore specific information processing and cognitive processes that underlie intellectual ability • Triarchic theory of intelligence--> both psychological processes that involved in intelligent behaviour and the diverse forms that intelligence can take o Divides cognitive processes into 3 components • Metacomponents--> higher order processes used to plan and regulate task performance (ex. problem solving) • Performance components--> actual mental processes used to perform the task (ex. perceptual processing, retrieving appropriate memories) • Knowledge acquisition components--> learn from our experiences, store info in memory, and combine new insights with previously acquired info • These abilities underlie the individual differences in crystallized intelligence • Three Classes of Intelligence: o Analytical Intelligence--> academically-orientated problem-solving skills o Practical Intelligence--> skills needed to cope with everyday demands and to manage o Creative Intelligence--> mental skills needed to deal adaptively with novel problems Broader Conceptions of Intelligence • Mental competence --> sometimes intelligence is viewed as that; believed that intelligence can be more broadly conceived as independent intelligences • Gardner's Multiple Intelligences o Defines right distinct varieties of adaptive abilities • Linguistic Intelligence --> ability to use language • Logical mathematical intelligence --> ability to reason mathematically and logically • Visuospatial intelligence --> ability to solve spatial problems • Musical intelligence--> ability to perceive pitch and rhythm and to understand and produce music • Bodily kinesthetic intelligence --> ability to control body movements and skilfully manipulate objects • Interpersonal intelligence--> ability to understand and relate to others • Intrapersonal intelligence --> ability to understand oneself • Naturalistic intelligence --> ability to understand phenomena in the natural world • Existential Intelligence--> ability to ponder questions about the meanings of one's existence, life, and death o First three--> measured by existing intelligence tests; are highly adaptive o Another form of adaptive ability might be emotional intelligence--> abilities to read others' emotions accurately, to respond to them appropriately, to motivate oneself, to be aware of own emotions, and to regulate/control own emotional responses • Has 4 branches: • #1: Perceiving emotions --> judging emotional expressions • #2: Understating emotions --> specify conditions under which their emotions change in intensity/type; basic emotions blend to create subtle emotions • #3 Using emotions to facilitate thoughts --> identify the emotions that would best enhance a particular type of thinking • #4 Managing emotions --> change their own and others' emotions to increase harmony and success The Measurement of Intelligence • Achievement test--> designed to find out how much they have learned so far in their lives o Argument for achievement testing: good predictor of
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit