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Chapter 10

Psychology Chapter 10 Intelligence.docx

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Psychology 1000

Psychology Chapter 10: Intelligence •Intelligence--> the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment •Intelligence is not a concrete existence but instead a socially constructed concept •Sir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental Ability o Believed that intelligence was inherited and that the generation now is smarter than the generation before o Is bias as he dismissed the fact that the more successful individuals come from more privileged environments o Demonstrated a biological basis for intelligence by measuring brain size, reaction time, etc o His approach is disfavoured because his measures of nervous system efficiency proved unrelated to socially relevant measures of mental ability •Alfred Binet's Mental Tests o Interested in solving a problem instead of forming a theory: He wanted to identify children that does not benefit from the normal public schooling so some other form of special education can be arranged for them o Made two assumptions about intelligence • Mental abilities develop with age • The rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person and is fairly constant over time o Mental age--> whether a person performs a correct mental task for his or her age (ex. if a 6-year old child can perform a task that a 9 year old child can do, then the 6year old child has a mental age of a 9 year old) o Intelligence quotient (IQ)--> ratio of mental age to chronological age; developed by William Stern o Today's tests no longer uses the concepts of mental age as it is less useful on adults than to children. • Intellectual skills show an actual decline at advanced ages so mental age is not the most correct way to measure intelligence •Summary for Historical Intelligence Industries o Stanford-Binet --> Army Alpha--> Army Beta --> Weschsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) The Nature of Intelligence •Psychologists have used two major approaches in the study of intelligence o Psychometric approach --> attempts to map the structure of intellect and to discover the kinds of mental competencies that underlie test performance o Cognitive processes approach--> studies the specific thought processes that underlie those mental competencies •Psychometrics--> statistical study of psychological tests; tries to identify and measure the abilities that underlie individual differences in performance o Factor Analysis--> a statistical technique reduces a large number of measures to a smaller number of clusters, or factors, with each cluster containing variables that correlate highly with one another but less highly with variables in other clusters • Cannot identify what the test is measuring o g Factor--> (general intelligence) whatever special abilities might be required to perform that particular task ( the idea that two abilities are clearly different however they reflect a basic/ general mental capacity that contributes to them) • This factor cuts through all tasks (constitutes the core of intelligence) • Predictor of both academic and job performance o Primary mental abilities --> human mental performance depends not on a general factor but rather on seven distinct abilities • Educators are more interested in primary mental abilities • Help increase specific mental abilities that are identifiable in children • Overall general mental ability measures are not useful for practical uses o The g factor is broken down into two subtypes: • Crystallized intelligence (gc) --> ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems (ex. vocabulary and info tests)  Depends on the ability to retrieve previously learned information and problem-solving schemas from long-term memory • Fluid Intelligence (gf--> ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations for which personal experience doesn’t provide a solution  Dependent on efficient functioning of the central nervous system rather than prior experience and cultural context  Perceive relations among stimulus patterns and draw inferences from relationships  Requires the abilities to reason abstractly, think logically, and manage info in short term memory  We progress from fluid intelligence to depending more on crystallized intelligence o Three Stratum Theory of Cognitive Abilities--> establishes three levels of mental skills: general, broad, and narrow arranged in a hierarchical model Cognitive Approaches • Cognitive process theories--> explore specific information processing and cognitive processes that underlie intellectual ability • Triarchic theory of intelligence--> both psychological processes that involved in intelligent behaviour and the diverse forms that intelligence can take o Divides cognitive processes into 3 components • Metacomponents--> higher order processes used to plan and regulate task performance (ex. problem solving) • Performance components--> actual mental processes used to perform the task (ex. perceptual processing, retrieving appropriate memories) • Knowledge acquisition components--> learn from our experiences, store info in memory, and combine new insights with previously acquired info • These abilities underlie the individual differences in crystallized intelligence • Three Classes of Intelligence: o Analytical Intelligence--> academically-orientated problem-solving skills o Practical Intelligence--> skills needed to cope with everyday demands and to manage o Creative Intelligence--> mental skills needed to deal adaptively with novel problems Broader Conceptions of Intelligence • Mental competence --> sometimes intelligence is viewed as that; believed that intelligence can be more broadly conceived as independent intelligences • Gardner's Multiple Intelligences o Defines right distinct varieties of adaptive abilities • Linguistic Intelligence --> ability to use language • Logical mathematical intelligence --> ability to reason mathematically and logically • Visuospatial intelligence --> ability to solve spatial problems • Musical intelligence--> ability to perceive pitch and rhythm and to understand and produce music • Bodily kinesthetic intelligence --> ability to control body movements and skilfully manipulate objects • Interpersonal intelligence--> ability to understand and relate to others • Intrapersonal intelligence --> ability to understand oneself • Naturalistic intelligence --> ability to understand phenomena in the natural world • Existential Intelligence--> ability to ponder questions about the meanings of one's existence, life, and death o First three--> measured by existing intelligence tests; are highly adaptive o Another form of adaptive ability might be emotional intelligence--> abilities to read others' emotions accurately, to respond to them appropriately, to motivate oneself, to be aware of own emotions, and to regulate/control own emotional responses • Has 4 branches: • #1: Perceiving emotions --> judging emotional expressions • #2: Understating emotions --> specify conditions under which their emotions change in intensity/type; basic emotions blend to create subtle emotions • #3 Using emotions to facilitate thoughts --> identify the emotions that would best enhance a particular type of thinking • #4 Managing emotions --> change their own and others' emotions to increase harmony and success The Measurement of Intelligence • Achievement test--> designed to find out how much they have learned so far in their lives o Argument for achievement testing: good predictor of
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