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Chapter 3

chapter 3

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Mamdouh Shoukri

Chapter 3 Perception – the process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment - if you perceive your pay to be low, you may seek out new employment Perception has 3 components: - a perceiver, a target that is being perceived and some situational context in which the perception is occurring Perceiver Situation Target - Experience - Ambiguity - Motivational State - Emotional State The Perceiver - the perceiver’s experience, needs, and emotions can affect his/her perceptions of a target - past experiences lead the perceiver to develop expectations and these expectations affect current perceptions - emotions can influence our perceptions - perceptual defence can come into play where we “hear what we want to hear” and our perceptual system is working to ensure we do not see or hear things that are threatening The Target - perception involves interpretation and the addition of meaning to the target, and ambiguous targets are especially susceptible to interpretation and addition The Situation - every instance of perception occurs in some situational context and this can affect what one perceives - will perceive a racial comment more harshly after racial strife has occurred in the workplace Social Identity Theory – a theory that states that people form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories - helps us understand how the components of the perceptual system operate in the formation of perceptions - people tend to perceive members of their own social categories more favourably then those who are different Bruner’s Model of the Perceptual Process Model Example Unfamiliar target encountered New co-worker Openness to target cues Observation, search for information Familiar cues encountered Co-worker is Stanford graduate with good grades Target categorized Co-worker is “good man” with “great potential” Cue selectivity Co-worker’s poor performance ignored/distorted Categorization strengthened Co-worker is still “good man” with “great potential” Primacy Effect – the tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions Recency Effect – the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions Central Traits – personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a perceiver - taller and more attractive people are more likely to be paid more Implicit Personality Theories – personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together (ex. hardworking people are also honest) Projection – the tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others - honest warehouse manager who perceives others as honest may find stock disappearing Stereotyping – the tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variations among them - we distinguish some category of people (professors) - we assume that the individuals in this category have certain traits (absent minded) - we perceive that everyone in this category possesses these traits Attribution – the process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behaviour - rewards and punishments are based on judgements about what really cause them to act that way Dispositional Attributions – explanations for behaviour based on an actor’s personality or intellect - explain a behaviour as a function of intelligence, greed, friendliness Situational Attributions – explanations for behaviour based on an actor’s external situation or environment - explain behaviour as a function of bad weather, good luck etc. 3 implicit questions guide our decisions as to whether we should attribute the behaviour to dispositional or situational causes. 1) Consistency Cues – attribution cues that reflect how consistently a person engages in a behaviour over time - one might assume that a professor with generous office hours is nice and cares about students 2) Consensus Cues – attribution clues that reflect how a person’s behaviour compares with that of others - a
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