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Chapter 5

Chapter 5

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David Scallen

Theories of Work Motivation Why Study Motivation? • Important because have a need for increased productivity to succeed  need high levels of initiative which depend on motivation • Process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence toward attaining a goal o Need effort, persistence, direction (where effort is channeled - beneficial to org) Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation • Intrinsic: self-applied motivation that stems from the direct relationship between worker/task  feeling of achievement, challenge, competence and interest o Person’s internal desire to do something due to interest, challenge and satisfaction • Extrinsic: motivation applied by others that stems from the work environment external to the task  pay, benefits, supervision and company policies ; motivation outside person • Believed that extrinsic motivation can reduce intrinsic (extrinsic rewards is greater) • Self-determination theory: considers whether people’s motivation is autonomous (self-motivated by intrinsic factors – controlled internally) or controlled (want to obtain a desired consequence/reward – controlled externally) Theory X and TheoryY • Theory X – assumes that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it and must be controlled/threatened with punishment if they are to perform o Have various mechanisms to ensure they do work (coervice) • TheoryY – assumes that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility and can exercise self- direction/self-control o Need to take away barriers that might cause them not to enjoy work Motivation and Performance • Performance: extent to which an org member contributes to achieving goals of org o Not only dependent on motivation, thus motivation alone cannot improve it  Also affected by personality, task understanding, chance, intelligence • General CognitiveAbility – a person’s basic information-processing capacities and cognitive resources  mental ability/intelligence  needed for good performance • Emotional Intelligence – ability to understand/manage one’s own and other’s feelings/emotions  perceive/express emotion, assimilate emotion into thoughts o 1 Level - Perceiving emotions accurate in oneself/others – ID emotion in face/non-verbal bndaviour o 2 Level – using emotions to facilitate thinking – use/assimilate emotion to guide thinking and reasoning  use emotions in functional ways (DM) o 3 level – understanding emotions/emotional language and signals – get how different situations/events generate emotions/how others are influenced by emotions  understand dtherminants/consequences o 4 level – managing emotions to attain specific goals – able to regulate, adjust and change own/others’emotions to suit situation o Very good predictor of job performances (especially for low cognitive jobs) Need Theories of Work Motivation • Individual have needs that when unsatisfied will result in motivation Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory • Hygiene factors – demotivators (extrinsic factors) o Context of work  company policy/admin, relationship with managemer, conditions • Motivators (intrinsic)  achievement, recognition, challenging/interesting work, responsibility and advancement • Hygiene factors must be met if person is not to be dissatisfied. They will not lead to satisfaction, however. Motivators lead to satisfaction. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Theory that specifies that the lowest-level unsatisfied provides most motivation o Satisfied need no longer effective motivator – all depends on position • Physiological needs – needs that must be satisfied for the person to survive – org factors that satisfies these needs are minimum pay and working conditions o Ex. Food, Health  once taken care of, next about safety needs • Safety needs – need for security, stability and freedom  working conditions, fair rules, insurance plans and above-minimum wage pay • Social – social interaction, affection, love, companionship – friendly and supportive colleagues and opportunities for interaction • Esteem needs – need for feeling of adequacy/competency/independence/strength and appreciation/recognition from others  awards, promotions, recognition o How do I feel about myself • Self-actualization needs – desire to develop one’s true potential to fullest extent o Often are independent, creative and appreciative – self-development jobs o Am I as good as a person as I could possible me Alderfer’s ERG Theory • Existence needs – needs that are satisfied by material substance/condition (correspond to physiological and safety needs)  concerned with basic material for existence o Extrinsic motivation • Relatedness needs – satisfied by open communication and exchange w/ others that must be honest and accurate, including critical (belongingness and esteem needs) o Desire for maintain important interpersonal relationships • Growth needs – fulfilled by strong personal involvement in work setting  fully utilizing one’s skills/abilities and creating new ones (self-actualization/achievement) o Intrinsic motivation • Similar to Maslow in that higher-level needs gain motivational power when lower-level needs are met  differ in that ERG isn’t a rigid hierarchy as it accounts for differences in motive structure + higher-level needs are not met, individuals will increase their desire to meeting lower-level needs (already satisfied need can act as a motivator) o The more lower-level needs are met, the more high-level need are desired o The less higher-level needs are med, the more lower-level needs are desired o Hygiene factors must be met if person is not to be dissatisfied. They will not lead to satisfaction, however. Motivators lead to satisfaction. McClelland’s Theory of Needs • Needs reflect stable personality acquired through experience/society o Not concerned with hierarchy but under what conditions do what needs result in motivation? • Need for achievement: strong desire to perform well on challenging tasks  want situations in which personal responsibility can be taken for outcomes (have feeling of achievement), tendency to set difficult goals and desire for feedback (know where they) o Want to better their performances, concerned with innovation and LT – strive for success  intrinsically satisfying = growth/self-actualization • Need for affiliation: strong desire to establish and maintain interpersonal relationships  have tendency to communicate frequently/network (avoids conflict/competition) • Need for power: desire to have influence over others – want to impact others  care about personal prestige  self esteem (NFA= belongingness/relatedness need) • Overall, Maslow is too rigid, ERG is better and results support idea that particular needs are motivational when the work setting allows for the fulfillment of these needs Managerial Implications of Need Theories • Appreciate diversity – managers must be adept at knowing the needs to different employees o If just based on stereotypes of typical employee, reduce motivation • Appreciate intrinsic motivation – lower-level needs are easy to gratify through extrinsic motivation, management relies on them too much = employees are deprived of higher needs and expect more extrinsic factors (cycle of deprivation, regression and temporary gratification)  lower-level needs must be satisfied (pay well), make jobs more stimulating and challenging (feeling of achievement) and develop career plans Process Theories of Work Motivation • Specify on how motivation occurs (not what motivates people) Expectancy Theory (read page 167) • Motivation is determined by the outcomes that people expect to occur as a result of their actions on the job  strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual  multiply expectancy (% chance achieve goal x prob of getting reward x how much you value reward  how motivated you are to achieve goal o Outcomes: consequences that follow work behaviour  explains how an employee might choose one first-level outcome over another  second-level outcome are consequences that follow when first-level are attained (more personal relevant) o Instrumentality: probability that a particular first-level outcome will be followed by a particular second level  good performance leads to pay raise  Odds of getting reward for achieving an outcome o Valance – expected value of outcomes (extent which they are attractive)  the valence of a particular first-level outcome = sum of products associated with 2level outcomes and their instrumentalities  valence of 1 level depends on the extent to which it leads to favorabl
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