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Chapter 1-16

HR Chapters 1-16 Complete Chapter notes.doc

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Natasha Koziol

Chapter 1: The Strategic Role of HR Management Human Resources Management (HRM) – The management of people in organizations to drive successful organizational performance and achievement of the organization’s strategic goals Human Capital – the knowledge, education, training, skills, and expertise of an organization’s workforce HRM involves formulating and implementing HRM systems (recruitment, performance appraisal, and compensation) that are aligned with the organization’s strategy in order to ensure that the workforce has the competencies and behaviours that are required to achieve the organization’s strategic objectives. It is crucial that the HR strategy be aligned with the company’s strategic plan. Human Resource Management Responsibilities a) Operational – HR professionals hire and maintain employees and then management employee interactions b) Strategic – ensures that the organization is staffed with the most effective human capital to achieve its strategic goals Outsourcing – the practice of contracting with outside vendors to handle specified functions of a permanent basis Strategy – the company’s plan for how it will balance its internal strengths and weaknesses with external opportunities and threats in order to maintain a competitive advantage Environmental Scanning – identifying and analyzing external opportunities and threats that may be crucial to the organization’s success HR professionals play an important role in lowering labour costs, particularly in the service sector. Doing so may involve introducing strategies to reduce turnover, absenteeism, and the rate of incidence of occupational illnesses and injuries. It could also mean adopting more effective recruitment, selection and training programs. Metrics – statistics used to measure activities and results Balanced Scorecard – a measurement system that translates an organization’s strategy into a comprehensive set of performance measures Productivity – the ratio of an organization’s outputs (goods and services) to its inputs (people, capital, energy and materials) Primary Sector – agriculture, fishing/trapping, forestry, and mining Secondary Sector – manufacturing and construction Tertiary or Service Sector – public administration, personal and business services, finance, trade, public utilities, and transportation/communications Contingent/Nonstandard Workers – workers who do not have regular full-time employment status - part-time, fixed-term, temporary, those with more than one job, self-employed - this type of work often is poorly paid with little job security Globalization – the emergence of a single global market for most products and services - greater competition and leads most organizations to expand their operations globally Organizational Culture – the core values, beliefs, and assumptions that are widely shared by members of an organization Organizational Climate – the prevailing atmosphere that exists in an organization and its impact on employees - can be friendly/unfriendly, open or secretive, rigid or flexible etc. - this is influenced by management’s leadership style, and HR policies/practices Empowerment – providing workers with the skills and authority to make decisions that would traditionally be made by managers - managers have more people reporting to them; they cannot supervise their employees as closely - empowerment has greatly increased Scientific Management – late 1800s and early 1900s – the process of “scientifically” analyzing manufacturing processes, reducing production costs, and compensating employees based on their performance levels Human Relations Movement – 1920s to 1940s - a management philosophy based on the belief that the attitudes and feelings of workers are important and deserve more attention Human Resources Movement – a management philosophy focusing on concern for people and productivity Social Responsibility – the implied, enforced, or felt obligation of managers, acting in their official capacities, to serve or protect the interests of groups other than themselves Page 23 1. Must try and convince members that HR is not just a cost centre and that it must be used to retain talent in the company, attract new talent, and provide a strong impression on the community through initiatives such as CSR Chapter 2: The Changing Legal Emphasis To avoid flooding the courts with complains and the prosecutions of relatively minor infractions, the government in each jurisdiction creates epical regulatory bodies, which include human rights commissions and ministries of labour, develop legally binding rules called regulations and evaluate complaints. Regulations – legally binding rules established by the special regulatory bodies created to enforce compliance with the law and aid in its interpretation All employers/employees in Canada are covered by employment (labour) standards legislation. Employment (Labour) Standards Legislation – laws present in every Canadian jurisdiction that establish minimum employee entitlements and set a limit on the maximum number of hours of worked permitted per day or week - these laws establish minimum employee entitlements pertaining to wages, paid holidays/vacations, leave for maternity/parenting/adoption, bereavement leave, max number of hours worked per day/week, overtime pay etc. - also includes equal pay for equal work for male/female workers Charter of Rights and Freedoms – federal law enacted in 1982 that guarantees fundamental freedoms to all Canadians – applies to the actions of all levels of government (federal, provincial/territorial and municipal) The Charter provides the following fundamental rights and freedoms to every Canadian: 1. Freedom of conscience and religion 2. Freedom of thought, belief, opinion, and expression, including freedom of the press and other media or communication 3. Freedom of peaceful assembly 4. Freedom of association Equality Rights – section 15 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees the right to equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination - cannot discriminate based on race, national/ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age, disabilities Every employer in Canada is affected by human rights legislation, which prohibits intentional and unintentional discrimination in its policies pertaining to all aspects, terms and conditions of employment. The ways in which employees should be treated on the job every day and the climate in which they work are also addressed by this legislation. Discrimination – as used in the context of human rights in employment, a distinction, exclusion, or preference, based on one of the prohibited grounds, that has the effect of nullifying or impairing the right of a person to full and equal recognition and exercise of his or her human rights and freedoms Intentional discrimination is prohibited; an employer cannot discriminate directly by deliberately refusing to hire, train or promote an individual on any of the prohibited grounds. An employer is also prohibited from intentional discrimination in the form of differential or unequal treatment. No individuals or groups may be treated differently in any aspects or terms and conditions of employment based on any of the prohibited grounds. Discrimination because of association is another possible type of intentional discrimination listed specifically as a prohibited ground in several Canadian jurisdictions. It involves the denial of rights because of friendship or other relationship with a protected group member. Ex. refusing to promote a highly qualified male into senior management on the basis of the assumption that his wife, who was recently diagnosed with MS, will require too much of his time and attention to her needs. Unintentional/Constructive/Systematic Discrimination – discrimination that is embedded in policies and practices that appear neutral on the surface and are implemented impartially but have an adverse impact on specific groups of people for reasons that are not job related or required for the safe and efficient operation of the business Reasonable Accommodation – the adjustment of employment policies and practices that an employer may be expected to make so that no individual is denied benefits, disadvantaged in employment, or prevented from carrying out the essential components of a job because of grounds prohibited in the human rights legislation - an individual with a physical disability must be given accommodation to perform a specific task to the pint of undue hardship where the financial cost of the accommodation would make it impossible Undue Hardship – the point to which employers are expected to accommodate under human rights legislative requirements Permissible Discrimination Bona Fide Occupational Requirement (BFOR) – a justifiable reason for discrimination based on business necessity (that is, required for the safe and efficient operation of the organization) or a requirement that can be clearly defended as intrinsically required by the tasks an employee is expected to perform An example of the above is someone who is blind cannot be employed as a truck driver. Human rights legislation is applied under several of the following examples: - race and colour - sexual orientation - age - religion - family status - harassment (such as bullying) Harassment – unwelcome behaviour that demeans, humiliates, or embarrasses a person and that a reasonable person should have known would be unwelcome Sexual Harassment – offensive or humiliating behaviour that is related to a person’s sex, as well as behaviour of a sexual nature that creates an intimidating, unwelcome, hostile, or offensive work environment or that could reasonably be thought to put sexual conditions on a person’s job or employment opportunities Sexual Coercion – harassment of a sexual nature that results in some direct consequence to the worker’s employment status or some gain in or loss of tangible job benefits Sexual Annoyance – sexually related conduct that is hostile, intimidating, or offensive to the employee but has no direct link to tangible job benefits or loss thereof - ex. using profane language, sexually infused talk/jokes, displaying pornographic images etc. Harassment Policies Should Include: 1. An anti-harassment policy statement 2. Information for victims (how to identify harassment) 3. Employees’ rights and responsibilities 4. Employers’ and managers’ responsibilities 5. Anti-harassment policy procedures 6. Penalties for retaliation against a complainant 7. Guidelines for appeals 8. How the policy will be monitored and adjusted If discrimination is found a number of remedies exist such as compensation for general damages, complainant expenses, letters of apology etc. Occupational Segregation – the existence of certain occupations that have traditionally been male dominated and others that have been female dominated Glass Ceiling – an invisible barrier, caused by attitudinal or organizational bias, which limits the advancement opportunities of qualified designated group members KSAs – knowledge, skills and abilities Underemployment – being employed in a job that does not fully utilize one’s knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) Employment Equity Program – a detailed plan designed to identify and correct existing discrimination, redress past discrimination, and achieve a balanced representation of designated group members in the organization The employment equity process includes six main steps: 1. Senior-Management Commitment and Support 2. Data Collection and Analysis - a utilization analysis is used – the comparison of the internal workforce representation with external work force availability 3. Employment Systems Review - a thorough examination of corporate policies and procedures, collective agreements, and informal practices to determine their impact on designated group members so that existing intentional or systemic barriers can be eliminated 4. Plan Development - qualitative goals, referred as special measures should be included: 1) positive measures – initiatives designed to accelerate the entry, development, and promotion of designated group members, aimed at overcoming the residual effects of past discrimination 2) accommodation measures – strategies to assist designated group members 3) supportive measures – strategies that enable all employees to achieve better balance between work and other responsibilities - giving preference to designated group members to the extent that non-members believe they are being discriminated against can result in accusations of reverse discrimination 5. Implementation 6. Monitoring, Evaluating, and Revising Diversity Management – activities designed to integrate all members of an organization’s multicultural workforce and use their diversity to enhance the firm’s effectiveness Creating an Inclusive Environment a) Top management Commitment b) Integration of Diversity Initiatives and Talent Management c) Diversity Training Programs d) Support Groups e) Critical Relationship Networks f) Open dialogue (shouldn’t have to hide their true identities to fit in) g) Management Responsibility and Accountability Summary: - there are 14 jurisdictions for employment law; 10 provinces, 3 territories, and federal jurisdiction - all jurisdictions prohibit discrimination of the grounds of race, colour, sexual orientation, religion, disability (physical and mental), sex, age and marital status - employers are required to make reasonable accommodation for employees Chapter Four: Designing and Analyzing Jobs An organization consists of several employees who perform various tasks. The relationships between people and tasks must be structured so that the organization achieves its strategic goals in an efficient and effective manner through a motivated and engaged workforce. Organizational Structure – the formal relationships among jobs in an organization Organization Chart – a “snapshot” of the firm, depicting the organization’s structure in chart form at a particular point in time Top-down Management Structure Decentralized Management (Bureaucratic) Structure (Flat) - highly specialized jobs with narrowly - broadly defined jobs, with general job defined job descriptions descriptions - focus on independent performance - emphasis on teams and product development Job Design – the process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform a specific job Job – a group of related activities and duties, held by a single employee or a number of incumbents Position – the collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person Work Simplification – an approach to job design that involves assigning most of the administrative aspects of work (such as planning and organizing to supervisors and managers, while giving lower-level employees narrowly defined tasks to perform according to methods established and specified by management Work simplification can increase operating efficiency in a stable environment and may be very appropriate in settings employing individuals with intellectual disabilities or those lacking education and training. It is not effective however in a changing environment in which customers/clients demand custom-designed products and/or high-quality services. Simplified jobs often lead to lower satisfaction and higher rates of absenteeism/turnover. Industrial Engineering – a field of study concerned with analyzing work methods; making work cycles more efficient by modifying, combining, rearranging, or eliminating tasks; and establishing time standards - this may result in human considerations being neglected - in an assembly line, with its simplified and repetitive tasks, the job may lead to RSIs, high turnover, and low satisfaction because of the lack of psychological fulfillment - to be effective, job design must also satisfy human psychological and physiological needs Job Enlargement (Horizontal Loading) – a technique to relieve monotony and boredom that involves assigning workers additional tasks at the same level of responsibility to increase the number of tasks they have to perform Job Rotation – another technique to relieve monotony and boredom that involves systematically moving employees from one job to another Job Enrichment (Vertical Loading) – any effort that makes an employee’s job more rewarding or satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties Enriching jobs can be accomplished through activities such as: - increasing the level of difficulty and responsibility of the job - assigning workers more authority and control over outcomes - providing feedback about individual or unit job performance directly to employees - adding new tasks requiring training, thereby providing an opportunity for growth Team-Based Job Design – job designs that focus on giving a team, rather than an individual, a whole and meaningful piece of work to do and empowering team members to decide among themselves how to accomplish the work Team – a small group of people, with complementary skills, who work toward common goals for which they hold joint responsibility and accountability Ergonomics – an interdisciplinary approach that seeks to integrate and accommodate the physical needs of workers into the design of jobs - it aims to adapt the entire job system – the work, environment, machines, equipment, and processes – to match human characteristics - doing so results in eliminating or minimizing product defects, damage to equipment, and worker injuries and illnesses caused by poor work design Job Analysis – the procedure for determining the tasks, duties and responsibilities of each job, and the human attributes (in terms of knowledge, skills and abilities) required to perform it a) Human Resources Planning – knowing the actual requirement of jobs is essential for planning future staffing needs b) Recruitment and Selection – job description/specification information should be used to decide what sort of person to recruit and hire c) Compensation – job analysis information is also essential for determining the relative value of and appropriate compensation for each job d) Performance Appraisal – for many jobs involving routine tasks performance standards are determined through job analysis e) Labour Relations – in unionized environments, the job descriptions developed from the job analysis information are generally subject to union approval before being finalized f) Training, Development, and Career Management – by comparing the KSAs that employees being to the job with those that are identified by job analysis, managers can determine gaps that require training programs g) Job Design – job analysis is useful for ensuring that all of the duties having to be done have actually been assigned and for identifying areas of overlap Steps in Job Analysis 1. Identify the use to which the information will be put, since this will determine the types of data that should be collected and the techniques used 2. Review relevant background information, such as organization charts, and process charts 3. Select the representative positions and jobs to be analyzed 4. Analyze the jobs by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviours, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job 5. Review the information with job incumbents 6. Develop a job description and job specification (the two concrete products of the job analysis) Process Chart – a diagram showing the flow of inputs to and outputs from the job under study Various qualitative and quantitative techniques are used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, and requirements of the job. Qualitative Job Analysis Techniques a) The Interview (see page 94) - most widely used method – three types of interviews are used to collect job analysis data - individual interviews, group interviews, and supervisory interviews - the group interview is used for groups of employees who have the same job b) Questionnaires c) Observation d) Participant Diary/Log - daily listings made by employees of every activity Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques a) Position Analysis Questionnaire - used to collect quantifiable data regarding the duties and responsibilities of various jobs b) Functional Job Analysis (FJA) - a quantitative method for classifying jobs based on types and amounts of responsibility for data, people and things - performance standards and training requirements are also identified c) The National Occupational Classification - a reference tool for writing job descriptions and job specifications - compiles by the federal government, it contains comprehensive, standardized descriptions of about 30,000 occupations and the requirements for each Internet-Based Job Analysis - easy to update quickly, not time-consuming as interviews and observations are Job Description – a list of the duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, and working conditions of a job – one product o a job analysis See page 103-105 for a sample job description. Job Specification – a list of the “human requirements” that is, the requisite knowledge, skills and abilities, needed to perform the job – another product of a job analysis Physical Demands Analysis – identification of the senses used and the type, frequency, and amount of physical effort involved in a job See page 108 for an example of a physical demands analysis. Competency Based Job Analysis - describing a job in terms of the measurable, observable behavioural competencies an employee must exhibit to do well Competencies – demonstrate characteristics of a person that enable performance of the job Three reasons to use competency analysis: 1) Traditional job descriptions (with their lists of specific duties) may actually backfire if a high performance work system is your goal 2) Describing the job in terms of the skills, knowledge, and competencies the worker needs is more strategic 3) Measurable skills, knowledge, and competencies support the employer’s performance management process Chapter Five: Human Resources Planning Human Resources Planning (HRP) – the process of forecasting future human resources requirements to ensure that the organization will have the required number of employees with the necessary skills to meet its strategic objectives Effective HRP helps an organization to achieve its strategic goals and objectives, achieve economies in hiring new workers, make major labour market demands more successfully, anticipate and avoid shortages and surpluses of human resources, and control/reduce labour costs. Human Resources Planning Model Step 1: Forecast Demand for Labour Step 2: Analyze Supply Step 3: Implement HR Programs to Balance Supply and Demand See page 119 for the detailed model. Environmental Scanning is a critical component of HRP and strategic planning processes; the most successful organizations are prepared for changes before they occur. The external environmental factors most frequently monitored include economic conditions, market trends, technological changes and demographic needs. Step 1: Forecasting Future Human Resources Needs (Demand) A key component of HRP is forecasting the number and type of people needed to meet organizational objectives. In addition to the basic requirements for staff, several other factors should be considered: - projected turnover - quality and nature of employees - decisions to upgrade the quality of products/services or enter into new markets - planned technological and administrative changes aimed at increasing productivity - the financial resources available to each department Quantitative Approaches Trend Analysis – the study of a firm’s past employment levels over a period of years to predict future needs – purpose is to identify employment trends that may continue in the future Ratio Analysis – a forecasting technique for determining future staff needs by using ratios between some causal factor (such as sales volume) and the number of employees needed Scatter Plot – a graphical method used to help identify the relationship between two variables Regression Analysis – a statistical technique involving the use of a mathematical formula to project future demands based on an established relationship between an organization’s employment level (dependent variable) and some measurable factor of output (independent variable) Qualitative Approaches Nominal Group Technique – a decision-making technique that involves a group of experts meeting face to face – steps include independent idea generation, clarification and open discussion, and private assessment Delphi Technique – a judgemental forecasting method used to arrive at a group decision, typically involving outside experts as well as organizational employees – ideas are exchanged without face-to-face interaction and feedback is provided and used to fine-tune independent judgements until a consensus is reached Managerial Judgement Staffing Table – a pictorial representation of all jobs within the organization, along with the number of current incumbents and future employment requirements (monthly or yearly) for each (SEE PAGE 127) Step 2: Forecasting the Availability of Internal and External Candidates (Supply) Short-term and long-range HR demand forecasts only provide half of the staffing equation by answering the question “how many employees will we need?” The next major concern is how projected openings will be filled. Sources of supply can be internal (present employees who can be promoted) or external. Forecasting the Supply of Internal Candidates Before estimating how many external candidates will need to be recruited and hired, management must determine how many candidates for projected openings will likely come from within the firm Markov Analysis – a method of forecasting internal labour supply that involves tracking the pattern of employee movements throughout various jobs and developing a transitional probability matrix (pg. 128) Skills Inventories – manual or computerized records summarizing employees’ education, experience, interests, skills, and so on, which are used to identify internal candidates eligible for transfer and/or promotion Management Inventories – records summarizing the qualifications, interests, and skills of management employees, along with the number and types of employees supervised, duties of such employees, total budget managed, previous managerial duties and responsibilities, and managerial training received To be useful, skills and management inventories must be updated regularly. Replacement Charts – visual representations of who will re[place whom in the event of a job opening - likely internal candidates are listed along with their age, present performance rating, and promotability status (see page 130) Replacement Summaries – lists of likely replacements for each position and their relative strengths and weaknesses, as well as information about current position, performance, promotability, age and experience Succession Planning – the process of ensuring a suitable supply of successors for current and future senior or key jobs so that the careers of individuals can be effectively planned and managed Forecasting the Supply of External Candidates Some jobs cannot be filled with internal candidates, such as entry-level jobs and jobs for which no current employees are qualified. To project the supply of outside candidates, employers assess general economic conditions, national labour market conditions, local labour market conditions, and occupational market conditions. Step 3: Planning and Implementing HR Programs to Balance Supply and Demand Once the supply and demand of human resources have been estimated, program planning and implementation commence. Three possible scenarios: labour supply can be greater than, less than, or equal to supply. 1) Labour Surplus Hiring Freeze – a common initial response to an employee surplus – openings are filled by reassigning current employees, and no outsiders are hired Attrition – the normal separation of employees from an organization because of resignation, retirement, or death Some organizations attempt to accelerate attrition by offering incentives to employees to leave, such as early retirement buyout programs (attractive buyout packages or the opportunity to retire on full pension with an attractive benefits package). Job Sharing – a strategy that involves dividing the duties of a single position between two or more employees Work Sharing – employees work three or four hour days a week and receive EI benefits on their non-workdays Reduced Workweek – employees work fewer hours and receive less pay Layoff – the temporary withdrawal of employment to workers for economic or business reasons Supplemental Unemployment Benefits (SUBs) – a top-up of EI benefits to bring income levels closer to what an employee would receive if on the job Termination – permanent separation from the organization for any reason Severance Package – a lump-sum payment, continuance of benefits for a specified period of time, and other benefits that are provided to employees who are being terminated - typically provided when employees are being terminated through no fault of their own to avoid wrongful dismissal lawsuits A high cost associated with downsizing is Survivor Sickness – a range of negative emotions that can include feelings of betrayal or violation, guilt and detachment. The remaining employees, anxious about the next round of terminations, often suffer stress symptoms including depression, increased errors, and reduced performance. 2) Labour Shortage A labour shortage exists when the internal supply of human resources cannot meet the organization’s needs. Scheduling overtime hours is often the initial response. Employers may also subcontract work on a temporary/permanent basis. Transfer – movement of an employee from one job to another that is relatively equal in pay, responsibility, and/or organizational level Promotion – movement of an employee from one job to another that is higher in pay, responsibility, and /or organizational level, usually based on merit, seniority, or a combination of both Flextime – a plan whereby employees’ flexible workdays are built around a core of midday hours such as 11AM to 2PM – they may opt to work from 7AM-3PM or from 11AM-7PM Telecommuting – a common flexible work arrangement where employees work at home, using their computers and email to transmit completed work to the office - this reduces travel time, permits the employee to work whenever he or she is most productive, and provides flexibility for dealing with family responsibilities Compressed Workweek – an arrangement that most commonly allows employees to work four 10-hour days instead of the usual five 8-hour days Flexyear – a work arrangement under which employees can choose (at 6-month intervals) the number of hours that they want to work each month over the next year Chapter Six: Recruitment Recruitment – the process of searching out and attracting qualified job applicants, which begins with the identification of a position that requires staffing and is completed when resumes and/or completed application forms are received from an adequate number of applicants Recruiter – a specialist in recruitment, whose job it is to find and attract capable candidates Employer Branding – the image or impression of an organization as an employer based on the benefits of being employed by the organization 1. Define the target audience, where to find them, and what they want from an employer 2. Develop the employee value proposition – the specific reasons why the organization is a unique place to work and a more attractive employer for the target audience compared to other organizations 3. Communicate the brand by incorporating the value proposition into all recruitment efforts Filling open positions with inside candidates has several advantages. Employees see that competence is rewarded, thus enhancing their commitment, morale, and performance. It is generally safer to promote from within since the firm is likely to have a more accurate assessment of the person’s skills and performance level. A drawback however is that employees who apply for jobs and don’t get them may become discontented. Job Posting – the process of notifying current employees about vacant positions The advantages of external recruitment include: - the generation of a larger pool of qualified candidates - the availability of a more diverse applicant pool - the acquisition of skills/knowledge not current available within the organization - the elimination of rivalry and competition caused by employees aiming for transfers/promotions Yield Ratio – the percentage of applicants that proceed to the next stage of the selection process External Recruitment Methods a) Online Recruiting b) Social Networking Sites c) Print Advertising d) Private Employment Agencies e) Executive Search Firms f) Walk-Ins and Write-Ins (those who go to organizations in person to apply w/o referral) g) Employee Referrals h) Former Employees i) Educational Institutions j) Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) k) Professional and Trade Associations l) Labour Organizations m) Military Personnel n) Open House and Job Fairs Want Ad – a recruitment ad describing the job and its specifications, the compensation package, and the hiring employer – includes an address for resumes/applications to be sent to Blind Ad – a recruitment ad in which the identity and address of the employer are omitted Nepotism – a preference for hiring relatives of current employees Recruiting Non-Permanent Staff a) Temporary Help Agencies – specialize in providing temporary workers to cover for employees who are ill, on vacation, or on a leave of absence or for temporary employees to handle seasonal work b) Contract Workers – employees who develop work relationships directly with the employer for a specific type of work or period of time Recruiting a More Diverse Workforce a) Attracting Older Workers - these workers typically have high job satisfaction, a strong sense of loyalty, a strong work ethic, good people skills, and willingness to work in a variety of roles including part-time b) Attracting Younger Employees c) Recruiting Designated Group Members -ex. the Aboriginal Human Resource Development Council of Canada Some firms use application forms to predict which candidates will be successful and which will not. One approach involves designing a weighted application blank (WAB) – a job application form on which applicant responses have been weighted based on their statistical relationship to measures of job success. Another type of application form that can be used to predict performance is a biological information blank (BIB) – a detailed job application form requesting biographical data found to be predictive of success on the job, pertaining to background, experiences, and preferences (responses are scored). Chapter Seven: Selection Selection – the process of choosing among individuals who have been recruited to fill existing or projected job openings Suggested guidelines for avoiding negative legal consequences: - ensure that all selection criteria and strategies are based on the job description and specification - adequately assess the applicant’s ability to meet performance standards or expectations - carefully scrutinize all information supplied on application forms/resumes - obtain written authorization for reference checking from prospective employees - save all records/information obtained about the applicant during each stage of the selection process - reject applicants who make false statements on their application forms Selection Ratio – the ratio of the number of applicants hired to the total number of applicants Selection Ratio = Number of Applicants Hired Total Number of Applicants Multiple-Hurdle Strategy – an approach to selection involving a series of successive steps or hurdles - only candidates clearing the hurdle are permitted to move on to the next step Steps in the Selection Process 1. Preliminary Applicant Screening 2. Selection Testing 3. Selection Interview 4. Background Investigation/Reference Checking 5. Supervisory Interview and Realistic Job Preview 6. Hiring Decision and Candidate Notification Step 1. Preliminary Applicant Screening - application forms and resumes are reviewed and those candidates not meeting the essential selection criteria are eliminated first – the remaining applications are examined and those candidates who most closely match the remaining job specifications are identified and given further consideration Step 2. Selection Testing - tests and other selection techniques are only useful if they provide reliable and valid measures Reliability – the degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures yield comparable data over time; the degree of dependability, consistency, or stability of the measures used Validity – the accuracy with which a predictor measures what it is intended to measure Differential Validity – confirmation that the selection tool accurately predicts the performance of all possible employee subgroups, including white males, women, visible minorities, persons with disabilities, and Aboriginal people Three types of validity are particularly relevant to selection: a) Criterion-Related Validity – the extent to which a selection tool predicts or significantly correlates with important elements of work behaviour b) Content Validity – the extent to which a selection instrument, such as a test, adequately samples the knowledge and skills needed to perform the job c) Construct Validity – the extent to which a selection tool measures a theoretical construct or trait deemed necessary to perform the job successfully Tests of Cognitive Abilities a) Intelligence Tests (IQ) – tests that measure general intellectual abilities, such as verbal comprehension, inductive reasoning, memory, numerical ability, speed of perception, spatial visualization, and word fluency b) Emotional Intelligence Tests (EI) – tests that measure ability to monitor one’s own emotions and the emotions of others and to use that knowledge to guide thoughts and actions c) Specific Cognitive Abilities – tests that measure an individual’s aptitude or potential to perform a job, provided he or she is given proper training Tests of physical ability may also be required. Some firms are now using Functional Abilities Evaluations (FAE) to assist with placement decisions. An FAE measures a whole series of physical abilities ranging from lifting to pulling, pushing, sitting, squatting, climbing and carrying. In order to measure personality and interests, personality tests may be used. Personality Tests – instruments used to measure basic aspects of personality such as introversion, stability, motivation, neurotic tendency, self-confidence, self- sufficiency, and sociability Interest Inventories – tests that compare a candidate’s interests with those of people in various occupations Achievement Tests – tests used to measure knowledge and/or proficiency acquired through education, training, or experience Management Assessment Centre – a strategy used to assess candidates’ management potential that uses a combination of realistic exercises, management games, objective testing, presentations and interviews Situational Tests – tests in which candidates are presented with hypothetical situations representative of the job for which they are applying and are evaluated on their responses - multiple choice questions where candidates asked to select “best response” to realistic scenarios Micro-Assessments – a series of verbal, paper-based, or computer based questions and exercises that a candidate is required to complete, covering the range of activities required on the job for which her or she is applying Step 3. The Selection Interview Selection Interview – a procedure designed to predict future job performance on the basis of applicants’ oral responses to oral inquiries Behavioural Interview – a series of job-related questions that focus on relevant past job-related behaviours Panel Interview – an interview in which a group of interviewers questions the applicant Interviewing Guidelines - interviewers cannot ask questions about marital status, childcare arrangements, ethnic backgrounds, compensation history, or other questions that would violate human rights legislation - all interviewees must be treated in the same manner - cutting short an interview based on preconceived notions about the gender or race of the “ideal” candidate must be avoided Common Interviewing Mistakes 1. Poor Planning 2. Snap Judgements - jumping to conclusions 3. Negative Emphasis - being more influenced by unfavourable information 4. Halo Effect - positive initial impression that distorts an interviewer’s rating of a candidate since subsequent information is judged with a positive bias - pleasant smile may cause interviewer to not seek contradictory info 5. Poor Knowledge of the Job 6. Contrast Error - aka candidate-order error; an error of judgement on the part of the interviewer because of interviewing one or more very good or very bad candidates just before the interview in question 7. Influence of Nonverbal Behaviour 8.Telegraphing - filling a job by telegraphing an expected answer ‘you can do this right?’ 9. Too Much/Too Little Talking 10. Similar-to-Me Bias Designing an Effective Interview Must Criteria – requirements that are absolutely essential for the job, include a measurable standard of acceptability, or are absolute, and can be screened initially on paper - often only two musts: a specific level of education and a minimum amount of prior related work experience Want Criteria – those criteria that represent qualifications that cannot be screened on paper or are not readily measurable, as well as those that are highly desirable but not critical - verbal skills, leadership ability, teamwork skills, enthusiasm Step 4: Background Investigation/Reference Checking A background check includes a criminal record check, independent verification of educational qualification, verification of at least five years’ employment, and possibly a credit check. Obtaining written permission is also important before conducting these types of searches. Step 5: Supervisory Interview and Realistic Job Preview Realistic Job Preview (RJP) – a strategy used to provide applicants with realistic information – both positive and negative – about the job demands, the organization’s expectations, and the work environment Step 6: Hiring Decision and Candidate Notification Statistical Strategy – a more objective technique used to determine to whom the job should be offered; involves identifying the most valid predictors and weighting them through statistical methods, such as multiple regression Chapter 8: Orientation and Training Employee Orientation (Onboarding) – a procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about the firm and the job Socialization – the ongoing process of instilling in all employees the prevailing attitudes, standards, values, and patterns of behaviour that are expected by the organization Reality Shock – the state that results from the discrepancy between what the new employee expects from his or her new job and the realities of it There are a number of potential problems that can arise with orientation programs: - too much information can be provided in a short time; employee may be overwhelmed - new employees may find themselves inundated with forms to fill out - if little or no orientation is provided, new employees must personally seek answers to each question that arises and they will be working without a good understanding of what is expected of them Evaluation of Orientation Programs: 1. Employee Reaction - interview/survey new employees for their opinion of the orientation 2. Socialization Effects - review new employees at regular intervals to assess understanding of the organizational beliefs, values, and norms 3. Cost/Benefit Analysis - compar
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