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PS102 Chapter Notes -Classical Conditioning, Drug Tolerance, Immunosuppression


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS102
Professor
Carolyn Ensley

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Chapter 6
Superstitions are often the result of obtaining a reward after engaging in some behaviour
o operant conditioning : type of learning
Phobias: are irrational fears of specific objects or situations
o often result of another learning process: Classical conditioning
o can be treated but sometimes come to an abrupt but unplanned end on their own
Learning: is any relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience
o Shapes personal habits (nail-biting), personality trains (shyness), personal preferences
(distaste for formal clothes), emotional responses (reactions to favourite songs)
o The principles that explain learned responses in animals explain much of human learning
Conditioning: involves learning connection between events that occur in an organism’s environment
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Classical Conditioning: a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a
response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
Pavlovian conditioning: Pavlov turned psychology from research focusing on subjective accounts of
experience, introspection, to a more objective, rigorous, scientific approach
o He showed how learning was under the influence of experience and that “associations could
be built up in consciousness “
Conditioning must be evolutionarily adaptive, contributing to our reproductive fitness
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): is a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without
previous conditioning
Unconditioned response (UCR) is an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs
without previous conditioning
Conditioned stimulus (CS): is a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired
the capacity to evoke a conditioned response
Conditioned response (CR): is a learned action to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of
previous conditioning
Psychic reflex = conditioned reflex
Classical conditioned responses are elicited (drawn forth) because most are relatively automatic or
involuntary
A trial in classical conditioning consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli
Key role in shaping emotional responses such as fears and phobias
Evaluative conditioning: refers to changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that
stimulus with other positive or negative stimuli (involves the acquisition of likes and dislikes, or
preferences, through classical conditioning)
o Advertising campaigns try to take advantage evaluative conditioning
Antibodies: specialized proteins that are produced by the immune system to repel infectious
invasion to the body
Immunosuppression: a decrease in the production of antibodies
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