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PS260 (69)
Chapter 4

PS260 Chap 4 Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS260
Professor
Eileen Wood
Semester
Fall

Description
September 19, 12 from their mental prison. This is done by having an adult “facilitator” place their hand over the child’s hand  or  o rch  o Explain the source of ideas, how they were tested, and what the results were so  replication is possible o Peer review and scientific publication ensures that the work lives up to the accepted  scientific standard, also provides system of checks and balances Descriptive Studies: Establishing The Facts • Goal is to describe and predict behavior but does not allow casual explanations  • Representative Sample: participants that accurately represents what researcher is interested in • Descriptive methods: methods that provide descriptions of behavior but not necessarily casual  explanations  • Case Studies o Detailed description of a single individual being studied or treated o Most commonly used by clinicians o Provides any information that can display persons’ behavior ex: fantasies, dreams,  experiences, relationships  • Observational Studies o Researcher observes, measures, and records behavior without interfering with the  behavior (naturalistic so that participants cannot be influenced on their decisions or  laboratory observation) o Involve many participants unlike case studies o Usually first step in a program of research  o More useful for describing behavior than for explaining it  • Tests o Psychological tests AKA assessment instruments: procedures used to measure and  evaluate personality traits, emotional states, interests, abilities, values, and aptitudes   (natural ability to do something) o Generate information about people indirectly o Usually require participant to answer series of questions written or oral  o Objective Tests AKA Inventories: measure beliefs, feelings or behaviors (pencil and  paper) o Projective Tests: designed to tap unconscious feelings or motives  o Help clarify differences between people as well as reactions of the same person on o , but are not easy to do well o Sampling problems are often an issue  People can sometime lie  Obtaining representative sample (volunteer bias)  Type and phasing of questions o Computerized questionnaires can reduce lying • Measuring Correlations o Correlation Study: measure of how strongly 2 quantifiable characteristics of behavior  (variables) are related to one another  o Correlation AKA relation o Positive Correlation  High values of one variable are associated with high variables of the other and  low variables of one variable are associated with low values of the other  One thing changes the other changes in the same direction  A perfect positive correlation has 
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