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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Reading Notes.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS276
Professor
Diane Glebe
Semester
Summer

Description
READING NOTES Chapter 10: INTIMACY Intimacy as anAdolescent Issue • Intimacy is the psychosocial domain concerning the formation, maintenance, and termination of close relationships • During childhood, not having friends is associated with a wide range of psychological and social problems ◦ During adulthood, having one intimate friendship is beneficial to an individual's health Recap • In adolescence, the development of intimacy refers to the development of relationships that are characterized by self-disclosure, trust, and concern • The changes of puberty, which draw young people together around common concerns and which stimulate interest in romantic relationships, contribute to the development of intimacy • The development of intimacy is also stimulated by the cognitive changes of the period, which allow for a more sophisticated understanding of relationships • Intimate relationships are facilitated by the social changes of the period, which provide for more opportunities for adolescents to be along with each other and for them to acquire experiences that bring them close to adults Theoretical Perspectives onAdolescent Intimacy Sullivan's Theory of Interpersonal Development • Sullivan emphasized the social aspects of growth, suggesting that psychological development can be best understood when looked at the interpersonal terms • The challenges of adolescence revolve around trying to satisfy changing interpersonal needs • Stages of Interpersonal Needs ◦ See table 10.1, page 308 ◦ In Sullivan's view, the security that is derived from having satisfying relationships with others is the glue that holds one's sense of self together ◦ Sullivan views psychosocial development as cumulative Interpersonal Development During Adolescence • Sullivan suggests that the need for intimacy – which surfaces during preadolescence – precedes the development of romantic or sexual relationships, which do not emerge until adolescence ◦ The capacity for intimacy first develops prior to adolescence and in the context of same-sex relationships • Sullivan felt that forming intimate friendships during preadolescence is a necessary precondition to forming close relationships as an adolescent or young adult • The preadolescent era comes to an end with the onset of puberty • Platonic relationships are nonsexual relationships with individuals who might otherwise be romantic partners • If the interpersonal tasks of adolescence have been negotiated successfully, the young person enters late adolescence able to be intimate, able to enjoy sex, and able to experience intimacy and sexuality in the same relationship Attachment in Adolescence • Attachment in Infancy ◦ Attachment is defined as a strong and enduring emotional bond ◦ Three types of infant attachment: ▪ Asecure attachment between infant and caregiver is characterized by trust ▪ An anxious-avoidant attachment is characterized by indifference on the part of the infant toward the caregiver ▪ An anxious-resistant attachment is characterized by ambivalence (ambiguous) Does Infant Attachment Predict Adolescent Intimacy • Two reasons why individuals' attachment to caregivers continues to have an influence on forming intimate relationships during adolescence and adulthood ◦ First, theorists argue that the initial attachment relationship forms the basis for a more general model of interpersonal relationships employed throughout life ▪ This internal working model determines whether individuals feel trusting or apprehensive and whether they see themselves worthy of others' affection ▪ Individuals who emerge from infancy with an insecure attachment are more sensitive to being rejected by others, a trait called rejection sensitivity ◦ Asecond reason is for the continued importance of early attachment relationships during adolescence is that interpersonal development is cumulative ▪ That is, it is influenced by both early and later experiences Peer Competence Security at age 16 The quality of infant attachment is linked to Adult romantic InfantAttachment adult romantic relationships through effects relationship on social development in childhood and adolescence. quality • Attachment inAdolescence ◦ The AdultAttachment Interview is a structured interviewed used to assess an individual's past attachment history and “internal working mode” of relationships ◦ Secure adolescents interact with their mothers with less unhealthy anger and more appropriate assertiveness ▪ Suggesting that they will have fewer difficulties establishing emotional autonomy ◦ Individuals who are dismissive or preoccupied are likely to show emotional and behavioural problems in adolescence ◦ Individuals who are more secure have more stable romantic relationships than their insecure counterparts ◦ Individuals who have a secure attachment during adolescence are more: ▪ Socially competent ▪ Academically successful ▪ Better adjusted ◦ Security is related to whether and what age adolescents “leave the nest” ▪ Insecurely attached adolescents are likely to delay moving out or return to their parents home more than securely attached peers ◦ Early attachment security is not an “inoculation” that protects individuals from psychological problems forever ▪ Rather, a psychological advantage that increases the probability of developing in healthy ways The Development of Intimacy inAdolescence Changes in the Nature of Friendship • Changes in Definitions of Friendship ◦ Companionship appears much before adolescence, but intimacy not emerge until considerably later ◦ Conceptions of friendship place greater weight on intimacy, loyalty, shared values and attitudes ▪ Consistent with Sullivan's theory • Jealousy ◦ Among girls, concerns about loyalty and anxieties over rejection become more pronounced ◦ Girls who have low self-esteem are high in rejection sensitivity and likely to become jealous of their friends' relationships with other girls ◦ Girls friendships do not last as long as boys' do Changes in the Display of Intimacy • Knowing Who Their FriendsAre ◦ As individuals move through adolescence, they gain knowledge about more intimate aspects of their friends' lives ▪ e.g.) Knowing their friends last name vs. Knowing what makes them angry • Caring and Concern ◦ Individuals become more responsive, less controlling, and more tolerant of their friends' individuality ◦ They show greater levels of empathy and social understanding • Conflict Resolution ◦ As individuals move from adolescence into young adulthood, they become more likely to end their disagreements by negotiation or disengagement and less likely to end them with one person coercing or overpowering the other and getting his way Sex Differences in Intimacy • How FemalesAre More Intimate ◦ The expression of intimacy appears to be more advanced among girls than boys ◦ This can hold some liabilities for girls ▪ Girls are more likely to spend excessive time discussing each others problems – co-rumination • Co-rumination tends to be a double-edged sword for girls ◦ It brings friends closer but also contributes to girls' depression and anxiety • Co-rumina
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