Chapter 7 – Training and Development
What is training? How is it different from Development?
Training is any effort by an organization to foster learning for the organizational members. That
is, anything implemented by the organization for its members to help them gain certain skills.
Training has a narrow focus, and is meant for short terms performance concerns. For example,
a workshop for the employees to learn outlook. On the other hand, development is more long-
term, and focuses on broadening the individual’s skills for future responsibilities. For example,
problem solving skills that they can apply even at home.
Keywords: Learning. Short-term. Narrow focus.
There are four phases to implement a program and each one is necessary for training to be
1. Needs Assessment
2. Program Design
PHASE ONE: CONDUCT THE NEEDS ASSESSMENT
Most organizations have a Chief Learning Officer! They are top executives responsible for
fostering employee learning and development, which should be focused on the company’s
So they’re basically responsible for the training and development in the organization.
Needs Assessment is conducted using 3 different types of analysis:
a. Organizational Analysis – examination of the organization’s environment, strategies, and
resources to determine the emphasis of training.
Checking if the company has enough funds to start a training program, making sure that
there is a learning culture in the company and promoting it. They also need to make sure
that the training relates to the company’s strategic goals.
Keywords: Environment. Strategies. Resources
b. Task Analysis – examining the tasks and duties involved in jobs to determine the content
of a training program. The job description is usually checked in order to see whether the requirements of the
job have changed, what tasks and duties are not being performed as needed etc
Keywords: Tasks. Duties.
c. Person Analysis – determining which employees need to be trained and which do not
Saves costs and doesn’t let the employees who perform well to feel underappreciated.
PHASE TWO: DESIGNING THE TRAINING PROGRAM
Focus on at least four related issues
a. Training Instructional Objective – the desired outcome of the training program
Keyword: Desired Outcome
b. Trainee Readiness and Motivation
Trainee Readiness – maturity and experience of trainees
Trainee Motivation – conscientious, goal-oriented, persevering individuals who link
efforts in training with high performance.
There are six strategies to help with readiness and motivate employees for training:
i. Positive Reinforcements
ii. Eliminate the threats and punishment – this gives employees room to make
mistakes without being penalized, which makes them more motivated to perform.
iii. Be flexible
iv. Have the trainees set personal goals
v. Interesting instruction
vi. Break physical and psychological obstacles to learning – this is done so that the
employees do not have any fear of looking bad and to accommodate the
employees who cannot be physically present.
c. Principles of Learning – to help employees grasp new material, ensure that the content
can be relevant in their own lives, so that they can transfer it back to the job.
ii. Meaningfulness of presentations – using examples to explain a point helps
employees understand the content more. iii. Modelling – using demonstrations (CDs, videos, charts etc) helps with learning
as well. We can learn more when we see things.
iv. Individual Differences – accommodate people who prefer to work alone or work
in teams, and those who have different styles of learning (people who learn
better in a small environment or big etc).
v. Active Practice and Repetition – repeating the content by practicing it enables it
to become second-nature to the employees.
vi. Whole-versus-Part Learning - divide material into parts if possible, for example
baking a cake can be divided into mixing the dough, assembling the cake, etc.
While other things, cannot be broken down into parts.
vii. Massed-versus-Distributed Learning - to practice in one long session, or to break
down the session into different parts – (one 10 hour class vs two 5 hour classes).
This has to do with the length of time.
viii. Feedback and Reinforcements
A good reinforcement tool is Behaviour Modification – technique where the rewarded
behaviour increases in frequency while the penalized or unrewarded behaviour
decreases in frequency (Similar to training a pet).
d. Characteristics of Instructors – instructors should have certain desirable traits such as
i. Knowledge of subject
This is self-explanatory
iv. Sense of humor
vi. Clear communicative skills for instructions
vii. Individual assistance
PHASE THREE: IMPLEMENTING THE TRAINING PROGRAM
In order to train employees, there are two primary focus groups. The programs are divided in
this way because managerial training involves honing the decision-making skills and they need
to have more KSA’s.
a. Training methods for non-managerial employees i. On-the-Job Training (OJT): a method where employees are given hands on
experience with instruction from the supervisor or trainer.
Keyword: hands-on experience.
There are three setbacks to this method of training:
1. Lack of well-structured training environment - trainees could be sabotaged by
other employees, lack of serious learning environment, no schedule.
2. Managers’ poor training skills
3. Lack of well-defined job performance criteria – how are trainees being
evaluated? How is their progress checked?
There are four possible solutions for these problems:
1. Realistic goals and/or measures for each trainee
2. Plan specific training schedules for each trainee (this would provide structure)
3. Establish a non-threatening environment conductive to learning (this would
4. Conduct periodic evaluations after training (this solves the job performance
ii. Apprenticeship Training: workers entering the skilled trades (eg mechanics) can
get on and off the job instruction and experience through practical and theoretical
Keywords: Skilled trades. On and off the job experience. Practical. Theoretical.
iii. Cooperative Training, Internships, and Government Training
Cooperative Training Programs: combines practical on-the-job experience with
formal classroom education.
Internship Programs: Sponsored by universities, colleges and other organizations
as an opportunity for students to gain real-life experience and allow them to see
how they would perform in work organizations.
Governments have started their own training programs for certain jobs.
iv. Classroom Instruction: In a classroom environment, blended learning takes
place, which is combining different training methods s