Jagjeet Kaur Dhawan
Training and Development
Off- the- Job Training Methods
Refers to the techniques used to stimulate learning
Instructional methods usually takes place in a classroom or formal setting for the
purpose of learning.
Eg: L O’real Canada’s with its use of simulations, games, and role plays, is a good example of
company that uses a number of instructional training methods.
Some methods such as games and simulations can also take place outside of a
classroom and can be incorporated into computer based training like L O’real Canada’s
simulation for product managers.
Types of instructional methods:
-A training method in which the trainer presents to trainees the training content to be
-Two-way communication between the trainer and trainees as well as among trainees
3. Case Study:
-A training method in which trainees discuss, analyze, and solve problems based on a
4. Case incident:
-A training method in which one problem or issue is presented for analysis
5. Behaviour modelling:
-Training method in which trainees observe a model performing a task and then
attempt to imitate the observed behaviour.
6. Role Play:
-Training method in which trainees practise new behaviours in a safe environment
-The use of operating models of physical or social events designed to represent
-Training methods that involve structured competition that allow employees to learn
9. Action Learning:
-Learning method in which trainees study and solve real world problems and accept
responsibility for the solution
oLecture: a training method in which the trainer presents to trainees the training content
to be learned
oLecture involves a unidirectional flow of information from the trainer to the trainee.
oLectures are effective for training several types of skills and tasks
Pros of Lecture method:
Large amounts of information can be provided to large groups of trainees in a relatively
short period of time at a minimal expense, which makes the lecture method very
Lecture is useful as a method to explain to trainees what is to follow in the rest of a
Lecture can be used as a highlight the key learning points of a video or role play.
Cons of Lecture Method:
It is not effective for the development of skills or changing attitudes.
Lecture does not accommodate differences in trainee ability, and all trainees are forced
to absorb information at the same rate.
Trainees are also forced to be passive learners with little opportunity to connect the
content to their own work environment, or to receive feedback on their understanding of
Tips for trainers:
Trainers can use the lecture method effectively by following a number of guidelines.
For example “where do I begin” is a question asked by most first time trainers. The
answer is: “first you have to know what you want to do (the objective) and how much
information you need to impart”.
Trainer should begin a lecture with an introduction to the topic and inform trainees about
what they will learn and or be able to do or accomplish by the end of the lecture.
Trainer must then present the content or body of the lecture.
Trainer who drones on for an entire hour is rarely effective. The delivery should be
punctuated with a variety of supplementary material or exercises.
Trainer should conclude the lecture with a summary of the key learning points followed
by some time for questions and answers.
oDiscussion Method: a method of training that allows for two way communication
between the trainer as well as the trainees
oone of the most ways to increase the trainee involvement in the learning proves
Group discussion serves at least five purposes:
1. helps trainees recognize what they do not know but should know
2. it is an opportunity for trainees to get answers to questions
3. it allows trainees to get advice on matters that are of concern to them
4. allows trainees to share ideas and derive a common wisdom
5. it is a way for trainees to learn about one another as a people
Group discussions facilitate the exchange for ideas and are good ways to develop
critical thinking skills.
Social and interpersonal skills are also enhanced.
Tips of trainers:
-Discussion method is most effective when the trainer can convince group members
that a collective approach has some advantage over individual approaches to a
-Trainer should create a participative culture at the start of a training program.
-Trainers task: to get trainees to buy into the process as an activity that is both
interesting and useful
The key to successful discussion is to ensure that one trainee does not dominate the
The trainer does not have to be obvious (by putting all the dominant personalities together)
Groups should be assigned a well-defined, easily understood task, one that is doable
within the allotted time frame.
Trainees should be given every opportunity to look good in front of their peers, especially
if they have to report back to the group.
Case study method: