Communications involve: i) source/sender, ii) message, iii) channel, iv) receiver. Promotion: consists of marketing communications that inform consumers about a firm"s product and persuade them to use it. Promotional mix: a blend of selling, advertising, and promotional tools aimed at a target market. Four factors determining a promotional mix create awareness & cost-effective: geography of market, target customer profile, product characteristics, available budget. Advertising seeks to sell by informing, persuading, and reminding customers of the existence or superiority of a firm"s product or service. Advertising in traditional media is on the decline while online marketing and advertising is growing at double-digit rates. Product advertising: make potential customers aware of a particular product or service and their need for it. Institutional advertising: conveys information about the business itself. Paid: television, radio, newspaper, magazine, web banner advertisement, pop-up ads the advertiser pays for the space and controls the message it is sending out to consumers.