Textbook Notes (363,452)
Canada (158,372)
York University (12,359)
HRM 3450 (16)
Ron Ophir (16)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8

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York University
Human Resources Management
HRM 3450
Ron Ophir

Chapter 8 Sex  determined at conception and refers to the reproductive organs you are born with and your hormonal makeup.  Unchangeable Gender  a social role governed by how your culture defines masculinity and femininity.  Changes as cultures evolve o Women wearing suits or playing sports would be unfeminine in the th 19 century Gender Identity  There are clusters of traits we designate masculine or feminine o Make up our conception of masculine and feminine gender identity  What it means to be a man or a woman. o Are gender stereotypes or generalizations, about how most men and women are expected to behave  Social controls o How society controls our actions and behaviours, due to ramifications of breaking societal norms. They enforce rigid gender behaviour codes. o Men being effeminate o Women being “butch” o Penalties like ridicule, ostracism, workplace discrimination Diversity or Conformity?  Because gender is a social role and controls are in place to make sure most people play the right role, gender may limit rather than liberate us. o Enforces conformity rather than encourage diversity Challenges to Traditional Gender Identity Transvestites  men and women who adopt the dress and behaviour of the opposite Sex Transsexuals  genetically of one sex but have a psychological urge to belong to the opposite sex  May seek surgery to bring biological self in line with psychological self Gender Patterns Girls are more likely to:  Live longer and be widowed  Earn less  Live in poverty  Marry younger  Be a single parent  Work part time jobs  Earn 71% less (when working full time) then full time male workers Boys are more likely to:  Commit suicide  Be a victim of violence  Remarry if divorced  Lose custody of his children in divorce  Get cancer or AIDS  Be employed and make more money Gender Spheres  People conform to fairly well defined notions of masculinity and femininity which leads to patterns of male and female behaviour emerging, creating gender spheres. o Areas of work, school and play in which men dominate and areas in which women dominate o Three types of gender spheres:  Occupational  Educational  Leisure Occupational Spheres  Men still dominate in administration, technology, the professional fields and jobs requiring physical strength.  Women still dominate the “caring” professions, such as nursing, social work and teaching. o Also predominate clerical and service sectors Educational Spheres  Canadian men are more likely to study architecture, engineering and applied sciences.  Canadian women are more likely to study secretarial, community and social services, nursing, education and the humanities. Leisure Spheres  Men are more likely to choose competitive and physically rough sports such as football and hockey  Women are more likely to choose swimming, cross-country skiing and bowling. The Issue of Equality Economic inequality  Women do not get an equal share of the pay rewards, whether they work outside the home or inside.  Even when men venture into female dominated roles they can still expect to earn more than their female colleagues.  Men may be leaders in the financial sphere although; they lag in the interpersonal sphere. Women generally care for their children and family and men being seen as breadwinners for their families miss out on family moments and are more likely to forgo close relationships with their children an
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