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York University (12,350)
KINE 2031 (13)
Neil Smith (13)
Chapter 1

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2031
Neil Smith

Chapter 1; The Foundation Of Physiology 1. anatomy A branch of biology that is the consideration of the structure of living things; anatomy and physiology are closely interrelated because body functions are highly dependent on the structure of the body parts that carry them out (p. 4) 2. exercise The study of both the functional changes that occur in response to a single physiology session of exercise and the adaptations that result from regular, repeated exercise sessions (p. 3) 3. human physiology The study of body functions (p. 3) 4. mechanistic Explanation of body functions in terms of mechanisms of action; that is, the “how” approach of events that occur in the body (p. 4) 5. medicine The art and science of healing (p. 3) 6. muscle tissue A functional grouping of cells specialized for contraction and force generation (p. 6) 7. physical therapy The treatment of disease, injury, or deformity by physical methods such as active mobilization (p. 3) 8. physiologist A person who specializes in the study of physiology (p. 4) 9. teleological Explanation of body functions in terms of their particular purpose in fulfilling a approach bodily need; that is, the “why” of body processes (p. 3) 10. body system A collection of organs that perform related functions and interact to accomplish 8a common activity that is essential for survival of the whole body; for example, the digestive system (p. 7) 11. cell The smallest unit capable of carrying out the processes associated with life; the basic unit of both structure and function of living organisms (p. 4) 12. cell differentiation The process by which less specialized cells become more specialized (p. 5) 13. connective tissue Tissue that serves to connect, support, and anchor various body parts; distinguished by relatively few cells dispersed within an abundance of extracellular material (p. 6) 14. endocrine glands Ductless glands that secrete hormones into the blood (p. 6) 15. epithelial tissue A functional grouping of cells specialized in the exchange of materials between the cell and its environment; lines and covers various body surfaces and cavities and forms secretory glands (p. 6) 16. exocrine glands Glands that secrete through ducts to the outside of the body or into a cavity that communicates with the outside (p. 6) 17. lumen The interior space of a hollow organ or tube (p. 6) 18. nervous tissue A functional grouping of cells specialized for initiation and transmission of electrical signals (p. 6) 19. organ A distinct structural unit composed of two or more types of primary tissue organized to perform one or more particular functions; for example, the stomach (p. 7) 20. organism A living entity, either single celled (unicellular) or made up of many cells (multicellular) (p. 4) 21. plasma membrane A protein-studded lipid bilayer that encloses each cell, separating it from the extracellular fluid (p. 4) 22. secretion Release to a cell’s exterior, on appropriate stimulation, of substances that have been produced by the cell (p. 6) 23. tissue (1) A functional aggregation of cells of a single specialized type, such as nerve
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