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Chapter 1

Psychology Chapter 1 & 2 Notes .doc

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PSYC 1010
Jill Bee Rich

Psychology Notes Chapter One How Psychology Developed (Into a Modern Science): • term comes from 2 Greek words •“psyche” (soul) •“logos” (study of a subject) • acquired its literal meaning “study of the mind” in 18th century • Scientific study of behaviour and physiological & cognitive processes that underlie it • Overt behaviour: can observe or measure • Covert behaviour: cannot observe directly i.e thoughts, feelings, can be inferred through overt behaviours What do Clinical Psychologists do? • Assessment • Treatment • Teaching • Research Psychologist vs. Psychiatrist: • Both diagnose and treat psychological problems, often work together • Education: Psychologist: Ph.D • • Psychiatrist: M.D Training in research methods: • • Psychologist: more training in research (actually conduct their own) • Psychiatrist: research not required • Prescription privileges: only psychiatrists Goals of Psychological Research 1. To describe behaviour (what) 2. To understand and explain the causes of behaviour (why) 3. To predict how people will behave 4. To influence/control behaviour Perspectives of Psychology: • Biological (nervous system, biochemical processes, genetic contribution) • Nature-nurture controversy • Twin studies • Adoption studies • Psychoanalytic (Freud) • Role of unconscious processes in behaviour • Cognitive (structuralism/functionalism) • Focuses on the conscious perspective • Humanistic • Rogers, Maslow • Humans have a drive to reach their potential to live a happy and rewarding life Optimistic view of human nature • Contributions of Wundt and Hall: • First studied by scholars in philosophy and physiology • Wilhelm Wundt (German prof) • made psychology an independent discipline • Structuralism pioneer • took on a more scientific approach • 1879: established first formal lab for psych (Lepzig Germany) • Christened as psych’s d.o.b • 1881: est. first journal devoted to publishing psych research • psychology’s main focus was consciousness (awareness of immediate experience) • between 1883-1893 • 24 new psych labs were established in North America • Stanley Hall (1846-1924) • briefly studied with Wundt • 1883: est. America’s first research lab @ Hopkins University • launched america’s first psych journal • driving force behind establishment of American Psych Association (was elected president) •today: APA is largest organization devoted to psych ad- vancements (over 155 000 members) • first APA meetings were attended by James Mark Baldwin and James Gibson Hume • although psychology was born in Germany, it developed in America The Battle of “Schools: Begins: Structuralism vs. Functionalism Structuralism: • Lead by Edward Titchener (emigrated from England) • taught at Cornell University • earned his degree in Wundt’s lab • based on notion that the task of psych is to analyze consciousness • investigate how the basic elements of consciousness are related • structuralists seek to identify and examine the components of the conscious experi- ence (ex. sensations, feelings, images) • depends on introspection • careful, systematic self observation of one’s own conscious experience • requires training to make subject objective and more aware • once trained in introspection • subject is exposed to auditory tones, optical illusions and visual stimuli • then asked to analyze what they experienced • limitations: •lead to demise of structuralism (too subjective) •b/c depending solely on individual’s reflection to document a phenomenon Functionalism: • based on belief that psych should investigate function or purpose of consciousness rather than structure • William James (1842-1910) • joined Harvard University to pursue psych • wrote a landmark book (Principles of Psych) •most influential psych book • according to NATURAL SELECTION.... • heritable characteristics that provide an advantage are more likely to be passed on to subsequent generations • thus are selected over time • therefore, consciousness must be an important characteristic to our species consists of continuous flow of thoughts • • called stream of consciousness functionalists are interested in how people adapt their behavior to demands of their en- • vironment • functionalists (Cattell and Dewey) began investigating mental testing, patterns of de- velopment in children, etc. • Margaret Washburn: • first woman in psych (Ph.D) • author of “The Animal Mind” • precursor to behaviourism • Leta Hollingworth • worked on children’s intelligence • influential on debunking theories on why women were inferior to men • Mary Whiton Calkins • first female president of APA Watson Alters Psychology’s Course as Behaviourism Makes Its Debut • early 1900’s Behaviourism • theoretical orientation: scientific psychology should only study observ- able behaviour • John B. Watson • proposed psychologists focus on behaviours they could directly observe • believed that mental processes were not a proper subject to study as they are private and can not be observed • believed that psych would have to give up consciousness as its subject matter and become science of behaviour • maintained that behaviour is fundamentally based on environment and experience rather than heredity • behaviourists viewed psych’s mission as an attempt to relate behaviours to stimuli Stimuli can range from light to sound waves etc. • • Behavioural approach is often referred to as stimulus-response psychology • Ivan Pavlov (Russian psychologist): • demonstrated how stimulus-response bonds are formed • famous dog-bell experiment • paved the way for animal experimentation rather than human sub- jects (more control over animal subjects) • Gestalt psychology (germany) opposed behaviourism • “Whole is greater than sum of its parts” • Primarily concerned with perception • Argued psych should study conscious experience as a whole enti- ty rather than as parts (structuralism) • Sigmund Freud : • contemplated mysteries of mental processes Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture: • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) • Austrian physician • dissected 400 male eels to prove they possessed testes • treated people with mental disorders by using psychoanalysis • looked to his own anxieties, desires, conflicts for research • according to Freud • unconscious: contains thoughts, memories, and desires well below sur- face of awareness but greatly influence behaviour • psychological disturbances (freudian slips, dreams) caused by personal conflicts exist- ing at an unconscious level • psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation and mental disorders by focusing on the uncons
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