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Chapter 6&7


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PSYC 1010
Heather Jenkin

CHAPTER 6: States of Consciousness How do the brain and environment regulate circadian rhythms? Circadian rhythms regulated by (SCN) SCN neurons link to pineal gland, which secretes melatonin Neurons in SCN are active during daytime – Inhibits melatonin secretion – Raises body temperature and alertness Neurons in SCN become inactive at night – Allows melatonin secretion to increase – Melatonin promotes relaxation and sleepiness 2. What brain-wave patterns distinguish the first four stages of sleep? Stage 1 is theta waves, the person is in a light sleep and may experience ‘body jerks’ stage 2 sleep is deepen, the muscles relax and the brain go through rapid burst of activity for 1-2 seconds (sleep spindles) stage3 sleep deepens further, regular appearance of delta waves stage 4 sleep deepens, delta waves dominate pattern. Stage 4& 3 together is slow-wave sleep 3. Describe some major characteristics of REM sleep. -Rapid Eye Movement -Brain wave activity increases -High arousal -frequent dreaming -REM sleep paralysis, voluntary muscles difficult to contract 4. Explain the restoration and evolutionary theories of sleep, and briefly describe an experiment that you would do to test the restoration theory of sleep. Sleep recharges the body and each species evolved a sleep-wake pattern that increased its chance of survival in relation to environmental demands. An experiment that could be done to test the restoration of sleep theory is to leave the body to free-run. That is to take away all clocks and predetermined schedules to see how the body responds to regular stress and how it copes. 5. Some researchers think that REM serves a special function. What is that special function, and what evidence supports or contradicts this hypothesis? Researchers think REM serves a cognitive-processing function. That is to say, when we dream (enter REM) our brain synthesizes problems and tries to solve it or makes sense of it. There have been studies where test subjects took a test and then took it again later without a nap between the two tests. They did the same test again, however this time they underwent REM and then did the test. The test group that took the test after they had a nap scored higher than the group that just took the break. 6. According to Freudian psychoanalytic theory, activation-synthesis theory, problemsolving dream models, and cognitive-process dream theory, why do we dream? Freudian psychoanalytic theory: representation of latent desires we have yet to realize. Activation-synthesis theory: when we dream, random parts of the brain are activated, dreams are our brain synthesizing it and making sense of it all. Problem solving dream models: helps us find solutions to personal problems and concerns Cognitive-process dream theory: dreams and waking thoughts uses the same processes in the brain. 7. How do agonists and antagonists alter synaptic transmission? Provide an example of each, and describe how it works. Agonists work by increasing neurotransmitter activity, the drug binds to the protein receptor and causes it to respond to how it would with a natural occurring substance. Examples of agonists are nicotine, and morphine. Antagonists work in the opposite way. The drug binds to the receptor site and inhibits activity some examples of antagonists are: marijuana and tranquilizers. 8. What is the relation among tolerance, compensatory responses, and withdrawal? As a person takes a drug for a period of time, the body will try to maintain homestatsis so they will feel the effects of the drug less. The person at that point will then increase their dosage to feel the results of the drug.The body will then in effect, produce physiological reactions opposite to the drug (compensatory response) as the body is compensating for the imbalances. After the drug has been discontinued the body will then continue compensatory responses to get the body back to regular. 9. Explain how alcohol affects the brain. Alcohol incre
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