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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 - Motivation and Emotion

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Chapter 10Motivation and EmotionMotivational Theories and ConceptsMotivation has 2 components o Goaldirected behaviour environment o Drivearousal from withinDrive Theoriessomething inside you pushes you to do somethingOrganisms seek to maintain homeostasis psychological stability o Hulls concept of drive was based on this observationDrive an internal state of tension that motivates you to engage in activities that will reduce this tension o Ex youre hungryyou feel uncomfortableyou eatyou feel better o Cannot explain all motivation incentiveanticipation of reward which is learned o Were motivated to maintain a zero level of arousalE probability of a response D drive x H habit strengthhow well practised a particular response is Hebbs Optimal Level of Arousal Theory When arousal is too high or too low we try to attain an optimal level and keep it at a happy mediumEysenck said o Extraverts have biologicallydetermined high levels of arousal o Introverts have biologicallydetermined low levels of arousalYour level of arousal is maintained by the reticular activating system RASWhat motivates people to engage in dangerousrisky behaviour o Solomons opponent process theoryif there is too much of a swing to one pole of emotion the opponent process will kick inA negative emotion will trigger a positive emotion and vice versa y The net effect is that the emotional state will be weakened o Zuckermans sensationseeking theorythere is a strong biological predisposition to high or low sensation seekingTypes of Motives and Conflicts2 types of motives o Approach motives to gain something good o Avoidance motive to avoid something badMaslows 2 types of motives o Deficiency motivesmotivated to remove a deficiency o Growth motivesmotivated to develop beyond our present condition even if there isnt a deficiencyTypes of conflicts o Approachapproach conflictshaving to choose between to positive things o Avoidanceavoidance conflictshaving to choose the lesser of two evils o Approachavoidance conflictsyou only have one option but it has positive and negative aspects
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