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Chapter 6

PSYC 3430 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Directed Graph, Role Conflict, Balance Theory


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3430
Professor
Peter K Papadogiannis
Chapter
6

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CHAPTER 6 STRUCTURE
Norms: implicit standards that describe what behaviors should and should not be performed in a given context
Types of Norms
Prescriptive Norms: socially appropriate way to respond to a situation
Proscriptive Norms: type of actions tht should be avoided if possible
Descriptive norms: what most ppl usually do or feel in a situation
Injunctive Norms: evaluative sort of behaviours tht ppl ought to perform- or else.
Autokinetic Effect: (illusion) the perceived movement of light upon a dark background with no comparison their
personal estimates blend with other group members
Roles: types of behaviours expected of individuals who occupy particular positions within the group (e.g., roles in a play)
Role Differentiation: The emergence and patterning of role-related actions (eg. Prisoner/guard experiment)
Role Ambiguity unclear expectations about the behaviours to be performed by an individual what ought and not be
performed individual uncertainty of the role (creates fatigue)
Role enactment: displaying certain behaviours as part of one’s roles in the group
Role-sending: transmission of ones expectations abt wht kinds of beh. Are expected of ppl who occupy these roles
Replacement hypothesis: in highly cohesive groups, group members take the place of our siblings and parents
SYMLOG MODEL (Bales 1970): Systematic Multiple Level Observation of Groups - Identifies 3 key dimensions (*26
roles):
1. Dominance/Submissiveness (Up vs. Down)
2. Friendliness/Unfriendliness (Positive vs. Negative)
3. Acceptance of Authority/Nonacceptance of Authority (Forward vs. Backward)
Group Socialization theory (Moreland and Levine) : how indiv. Negotiate their role assignments in groups
Types of Members: prospective, new, full, marginal, and former (ex-member) *
Phases: investigation, socialization, maintenance (role negotiation), resocialization (members on the fence), and
remembrance *
Processes: recruitment/reconnaissance, accommodation/assimilation, role negotiation, tradition/reminiscence
Transition Points: entry, acceptance, divergence, exit
Interrole conflict: role takers discover tht the beh. associated w/ one of their roles r incompatible w/ one of their other
roles beh.
Intrarole conflict: contradictory demands within a single role
*Role conflict has physical cons, such as bachackes, gastrointestinal problems, etc.
Status differentiation: individuals are granted more authority than others, more control over others hierarchal
Sociometric differentiation: stable ordering of members from least liked to most liked.
Balance theory: groups tend to gravitate towards structured relationships
Types of Communication networks include: wheel, comcon, chain, circle
Centralized vs. uncentralized
Wheel is the hub
Chain is when communication flow from one person to the next
Pinwheel is closed chain (from one person to the next) & in one direction
Circle everyone is communicating with each other
Comcom are all linked in communication (example Google)
Social network analysis: multilevel set of procedures defined by
A focus on structures of social groups and their members linkages
Systematic measurement of these structures
Use of graphics to represent structures
Application of stats and math procedures to quantify the structures
SNA includes:
Degree Centrality: # of connections or ties to a node.
Outdegree centrality: # of links directed out from the node
Indegree centrality: @ of links directed into the node
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