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BIOL 2P02 (103)

NOV 15.docx

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Adonis Skandalis

 Restriction enzymes are only a bacteria, its part of the defense system used in biotechnology.  CDNA – complimentary to mRNA  Under what circumstances will mRNA produce loops?  mRNA has exons  pre mRNA has exons and introns  genome: all the genetic material that goes in making an organism o you can say all the DNA for this course o also involves all the RNA that is necessary  as you get older the telomeres get shorter and after a certain amount of time the cell dies Eukaryotic transcription and control of gene expression  gene expression means simply transcription  only a few genes need to be active at a time  What is a eukaryotic gene: the entire nucleic acid sequence that is necessary for the synthesis of a functional polypeptide or RNA molecule. o Eukaryotic gene has exons and introns.  hnRNA: heterogeneous RNA  the region at which the mRNA is transcribed is called the CDS  chromatin remodeling  there are 5 RNA polymerases in eukaryotic  transcription happens at the same time as translation  relative to prokaryotes, eukaryotes have much greater flexibility in terms of their ability to modify protein production. This comes at the cost of greater complexity and time needed to make a protein.  Eukaryotic transcription: initiation, elongation, termination o Catalyzyzed by RNA polymerase (DNA dependent RNA polymerase)  “transcription bubble”: DNA transitenly separated into single strands  One strand is used as a template  Unwinding poing and rewinding point  Rate = 50-100 nucleotides/second at 37 degrees celcius o RNA polymerase  RNAP 1-3  Multiple subunits: RNAP 2 is 550 kDa complex of 12 subunits  Chromatin must be opened before RNA polyme
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