Restriction enzymes are only a bacteria, its part of the defense system used in biotechnology.
CDNA – complimentary to mRNA
Under what circumstances will mRNA produce loops?
mRNA has exons
pre mRNA has exons and introns
genome: all the genetic material that goes in making an organism
o you can say all the DNA for this course
o also involves all the RNA that is necessary
as you get older the telomeres get shorter and after a certain amount of time the cell dies
Eukaryotic transcription and control of gene expression
gene expression means simply transcription
only a few genes need to be active at a time
What is a eukaryotic gene: the entire nucleic acid sequence that is necessary for the synthesis of
a functional polypeptide or RNA molecule.
o Eukaryotic gene has exons and introns.
hnRNA: heterogeneous RNA
the region at which the mRNA is transcribed is called the CDS
there are 5 RNA polymerases in eukaryotic
transcription happens at the same time as translation
relative to prokaryotes, eukaryotes have much greater flexibility in terms of their ability to
modify protein production. This comes at the cost of greater complexity and time needed to
make a protein.
Eukaryotic transcription: initiation, elongation, termination
o Catalyzyzed by RNA polymerase (DNA dependent RNA polymerase)
“transcription bubble”: DNA transitenly separated into single strands
One strand is used as a template
Unwinding poing and rewinding point
Rate = 50-100 nucleotides/second at 37 degrees celcius
o RNA polymerase
Multiple subunits: RNAP 2 is 550 kDa complex of 12 subunits
Chromatin must be opened before RNA polyme