HIST 203 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Anti-Clericalism, Provincial Rights Party, New Imperialism

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HIST. 203
Feb. 7th, 2017
We have always had a generally two-party system
^ liberals & the conservatives
The parties have different temperaments
McDonald is leading the conservatives (19th century) & Laurier leading the
liberals
o Some of their policies are indistinguishable
o When Laurier comes to power we do not see that much change with the
broad national policy & development policy
o BUT his temperament (style & approach differs)
2 features of Laurier’s Liberalism
Laissez-faire approach to the society and the economy, was not responsible for
the strong economic population growth, but it encouraged it
His tradition of compromising between interest groups
o A master of compromise he believed in groups to have dialogue with
each other
Tradition of compromise:
In Quebec, to be a liberal was a conflictual choice brought into direct contact
with the Church
The Quebec bishops would fight the liberal party
The bishops would instigate certain priests
^ they had undue influence in the political process Rome had to tell them to
stay out of politics
In the 1870s..
Laurier was already defending the Liberal party
He defended the Liberal party and he said that Liberal approach in Europe was
much more anti-clerical, he tried to promote that his Canadian approach was not
necessarily anti-clerical
Archbishop of Quebec was on his side he is walking a fine line has to protect
liberals, but the Bishops of the Church are the defenders of Quebec nationalism
= the Liberal but at the same time a nationalist
And he is able to succeed quite well
Example of Laurier Liberalism and what it meant
He was a strong believer in provincial rights
^ He thought that it could only work in a working provincial system
^ Where the provinces were protected
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He believed that if the French Canadians were to survive as a people he felt that
they had to work within the national political and not withdraw into the provincial
sphere
He is allowing the liberal party emerge = as the party of liberal rights
But he also did not want the other provinces to perceive the party as a solely
Quebec nationalist party
He avoided this by advocating all provincial parties in general
Laurier in Power:
Comes to power with this promise of compromise
Catholic who is comfortable in English Canada
There is a lot of tension between the French and English building at this time
He wanted to sooth those tensions
Manitoba School Question 1890s:
It used to be a hackney topic
Contentious issue
In the NorthWest there was a great deal of struggle re English / Catholic / School
Systems
In Ontario you could have separate Catholic school board in Quebec you could
have separate Prot. school boards
The Question did they also have the right to separate schools
Should there be publically funded classes in other languages
There was a legal battle / political battle in Manitoba over the national schools
1895 bill introduced through linguistic schools
The Manitoba government had removed the right of schools in the French
language and the Catholic schools to have public funding
Laurier stepped in and once again he casted himself as a defender of provincial
rights
o Laurier the Franco-phone catholic = saying the federal government should
not have a say, it should be a provincial issue
o This was a very delicate issue
In the end he came into a compromise with Manitoba he allowed for half an
hour at the end of school day, wherever there was a certain number of students of
majority the Catholic school teacher could be employed and teach them at the
end of the day and this was the same with Francophone students
^ This remained until 1917
Laurier was a skillful politician, on the one hand the Franco-phones accused
him of going against him etc but he was able to work his “sunny ways” into his
political schemes
What did Rome think wouldn’t they want the Catholic schools to be restored in
Manitoba?
Rome actually thought that the situation in Canada was quite good
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