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chapter 12 and 13 review

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McMaster University
Teal Mc Ateer

Assignment 3 Review Chapter 12: Power, politics and ethics Power The capacity to influence others who are in a state of dependence Power is seen as social exchange (based on social exchange theory) Stage 1: resource dependence comes when individuals need something that another individual possess Stage 2: power or influence occurs when person with the need takes possession of it in exchange for something ***Five Bases (Types) of Individual Power, First 3 are structural and last 2 are personal power Structural: org gives you Personal: comes from characteristics of individual 1. Legitimate Power: Power derived from a person’s position or job in an organization, title gives you the right 2. Reward Power: Power derived from the ability to provide positive outcomes and prevent negative outcomes , possess resources that others want 3. Coercive Power: Power derived from the use of punishment and threat 4. Referent Power: Power derived from being well liked by others, personal attraction, charisma -stems from identification with power holder -Can be anyone in the organization, from janitor to president 5. Expert Power: Power derived from having special information or expertise that is valued by an organization Resistance more short term while commitment is long term Rosa Beth Moss Kanter: “Do the right things, and cultivate the right people” Doing the right things Extraordinary Activities: doing well in an unusual or non-routine task Visible Activities: Having everyone see your hard work, not hidden Relevant Activities: if it is not relevant to the solution of important organizational problems, it will not add to one’s influence Cultivating the right people, up across down and out relationships Outsiders: power by association with people of high standings outside the company Subordinates: good to know them because they may be in power soon or if you have a lot then you have power in groups Peers: good to have when you rise in power so you can still ask for favours and there is no bad blood between anyone Superiors: best way to obtain power as being a protégé of a superior may lead to promotions or introductions to “the right people” ****Empowerment: putting power where it is needed Giving people the authority, opportunity, and motivation to take initiative and solve organizational problems Giving people the freedom and ability to make decisions and commitments Puts power where it is needed to make it effective (only done with a healthy ego) People who are empowered have a strong sense of self-efficacy Degrees of empowerment: -No Discretion (routine, repetitive, tasks assigned, operate according to rules rather than initiative) Zero empowerment, very traditional/ bureaucracy (no power) -Participatory Empowerment (autonomous work groups, given some authority) Most common (some power) -Self-Management (full decision-making power, mg’t has faith in employees carrying out organizational missions and goals) Not where most organizations are, full faith/ power Characteristics of empowered people: Self-determination (free to choose how to work; not micro-managed) Sense of meaning (their work is important to them; they care about what they are doing) Sense of competence (confident about their ability to do their work well; know they can perform), self-efficacy Sense of impact (believe they can have influence on their work unit; others listen to their ideas), Influence Tactics: Tactics that are used to convert power into actual influence over others -Assertiveness -Ingratiation: flattery, being friendly, polite or humble -Rationality/ rational persuasion , the logos (logic) -Exchange -Upward appeal, the ethos (credibility and using authority) -Coalition formation: seeking united support from other organizational members, the pethos (appeals to people’s emotions) -Teals extra tactics: -how attractive you are, more likely to gain access to critical people - effort/interest, results in the power he/she can command Type of tactic used depends on type of power and whom you are trying to influence Who wants power? McClellands theory Need for Power depends on level on “n Pow”, which is the need to have strong influence over others High ‘n Pow’ in it pure form is very negative but if control can lead to good things 3 types of Managers that use n POW: Institutional, have high NPOW, achieve organization goals, blue red profile personal power, lost sight in what you signed up for and affiliate, being liked Subunit Power The degree of power held by various organizational subunits, such as departments Gain power through strategic contingencies, which are critical factors affecting organizational effectiveness that are controlled by a key subunit Strategic contingences and their conditions: Scarcity: acquire power when they are able to secure scarce resources that are important to the organization as a whole Uncertainty: units with functions that can provide the org with greater control over what it finds problematic and can create more certainty ill acquire more power Centrality: subunits whose activities are most central to the work flow of the org should acquire more power. Central in three sense : influence on other subunits, impact on product or service, impact is immediate Substitutability: If the subunit cannot be replaced by insiders or outsiders they will acquire more power, seen mostly in labour market Organizational Politics The pursuit of self-interest in an organization, whether or not this self-interest corresponds to organizational goals -self-conscious and intentional -individual or subunit activity -possible to be beneficial to outcomes for the organization Organizational politics using means/ends matrix 12.4 I. Sanctioned means and ends, not political II. Sanctioned means and non-sanctioned ends, dysfunctional political behaviour III. Not sanctioned means and sanctioned ends, political IV. Not sanctioned means and ends , very political , abuse of power The facets of political skill Political skill: the ability to understand others at work and to use that knowledge to influence others to act in ways that enhance one’s personal or organizational objectives Social astuteness: tuned in to others needs and motives Interpersonal influence: putting others at ease Apparent sincerity: genuine and motives cannot be seen Networking ability: establishing good relations with key organizational members and outsiders to accomplish ones goals Aspects of networking: maintaining contact, socializing, engaging in professional activities, participating in community activities, increasing internal visibility Machiavellianism: a set of cynical beliefs about human nature, morality, and the permissibility of using various tactics to achieve ones end Defensiveness/ Reactive Politics: Reduce threats to one’s own power by avoiding actions that do not suite one’s own political agenda or avoiding blame for events that might threaten ones political capital Defensive behaviours: stalling, over conforming, buck passing (making someone else do it in case you do it and fail) buffing (getting sign offs), scapegoating (blaming others) Ethics in organizations Ethics: Systematics thinking about the moral consequences of decisions Themes and examples of ethical behaviour: honest communication, fair treatment, special consideration, fair competition, responsibility to organization, CSR, respect for law Causes of unethical behaviour: Gain, role conflict, competition, personality, organization and industry culture Whistle- blowing: disclosure of illegitimate practices by current or former organizational member to some pe
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