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Pharmacology and Toxicology
PHAR 100
Hisham Elbatarny

Most troublesome: coronaryand cerebral Atherosclerosis arteries • accumulation of fatty plaques (atheroma) on the inside wall of arteries ◦ -oma: mass “roughpatch”:thrombosis • due to hyperlipidemia: elevated lipid concentration in blood ontop whichcaneventually • most common cause of CAD block vessel Main Plasma Lipids • cholesterol (C) • cholesterol esters (CE) • triglycerides (TG): most abundant • phospholipids Cholesterol • white waxy material • component of: ◦ steroid hormones (cholesterol = precursor) ◦ vitamin D ◦ bile salts ◦ cell membrane • 2 sources: ◦ exogenous: from diet ◦ endogenous: made in the body Blood Cholesterol Level Triglycerides • most abundant lipid in the body • structure: ◦ glycerol + 3 fatty acids • 2 sources: ◦ exogenous: from diet ◦ endogenous: made in the body Lipoproteins • complexes of lipids + proteins • proteins: ◦ called apolipoproteins (apoproteins) ◦ function: ▪ keep lipids soluble in the circulation (regulate lipid blood level) ▪ regulate lipids movements in or out of cells (ex: transger to liver, or from liver to elsewhere in body) Triglycerides:yellow Classification of Lipoproteins classificationoflipoproteins Cholesterol:red stars • chylomicrons • very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) • intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) • low density lipoproteins (LDL) • high density lipoproteins (HDL) Characteristics of Lipoproteins • chylomicrons: ◦ largest size of lipoproteins ◦ formed in the intestine size (increasing) ◦ carry exogenous TG • VLDL: mass (increasing) ◦ formed in the liver ◦ carry endogenous TG cholesterol:TG ratio • IDL: ◦ intermediate between VLDL and LDL ◦ temporary type → converted into LDL Characteristics of Lipoproteins • LDL (BAD lipoproteins): ◦ derived from IDL ◦ carry cholesterol to tissues including arteries ◦ main cause of atherosclerosis • HDL (GOOD lipoproteins) ◦ carry cholesterol away from arteries to the liver ◦ cardioprotective Hyperlipoproteinemia
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