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325 theorists, social theories.docx

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SOCY 325
Rob Beamish

325 - week 4 European theory in the twentieth century Born from of the enlightenment. Using empircal scientific method. Trying to find ultimate truth and knowledge. Finding commonalities through observation, find a common law. How we come to know the natural world, this is how we control and manipulate the natural would. Through observation and scientific knowledge. We live in a social world, so now we have to dare to know this world. Objective of sociology, objective, value free, empircal based nowledge that we can use to create a world with peace knowledge and freedom. Most powerful form of knowlege is science, Durkheim says we need to create a science of society. Gather factual information. Social facts. They are external but we internalize them through socialization. Study of suicide. Studying Protestantism and how it led to suicide.. It was a social fact. Social fact of religion integrates people into relationships with others. Family is a social fact. Families determine interactions. Creates cohesion. Gender is a social fact. Objectively looking at social facts of individuals to see who would be likely to commit suicide. You could predict human behaviour through empiricism, objectivity, and observation. Gather information about the world, and generate laws that explain phenomenon Weber- believes not in social facts, but in how people understand the world, frames of mind. Collecting empircal and observation based information. Looking at frame of mind and see how it affects the social world. People have a calling that leads to a way of live, causing a social action. Protestantism. Shapes people and the social world. Observed human behaviour, find sources of human behaviour, find a pattern, saw reliance on scientific knowledge. Beak things down and analyze them. Instrumental and goal rational action. Merge of our actions aree oriented towards goal actions, people calculate their actions. Sees society as trapped in goal rational action. Reason was supposed to liberate but it challenged human behaviour. Followed enlightenment goal of objective and scientific knowledge. It allowed for insight. But it also created fear of system of goal rational action had unanticipated outcomes. Need to overcome pessimistic world view brought upon by the enlightenment North America Different phiolosphical tradition. Draw from the enlightenment on that you can observe the world and understand it. Focus was more micro.. Focusing on human agents. Creates optimism that we can create the world in the way they want. As people learn, they change. The natural world will always be the same. Social knowlege changes behaviour. Eg using Durkhiems knowledge of suicide to change it. Pragmatism. A psychological theory. Argues that intellect becomes conscious of what exists, if we feel certainty then people are fine. Sense of fear and uncertainty then we try to eliminate and control it. Through uncertainty that we try and find certainty. A commitment to act.. Interacting with the environment and establish beliefs on the best way to act to eliminate fears. Individual person develops a set of habits that will create favorable outcomes. We develop knowlege that we feel certain about, which is the basis for future actions. Pragmatism begins with fear and uncertainty, and people wanting to control it. Action is shaped by how people should act. People need to find security American pragmatism- action stems from habit. Focus on social dimension of interaction. James, Dewey, and mead shape pragmatism into social theory. Jbserving behaviour and exploring motivation and meaning. Focus on formation of social self. Micro level focus. Not utilitarian philosophy.. People do not just strive for happiness pragmatism believes that people move form uncertainty to certainty. Ctainty is shaped by the environment and social interaction. It shapes who we are. People develop social self with interaction twiths others. Symbolic interactionism. We become social selves through social interaction. Focus on social act. Interaction occurs form birth. We begin as self, and other. Baby and mother. Each individual has a self. His 2 elements. The I and me. What does I
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