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Chapter 3

28 Pages

Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 733
Rupa Banerjee

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1Chapter 3 Learning and MotivationWhat is LearningLearning the process of acquiring knowledge and skills and a change in individual behavior as a result of some experienceLearning occurs when one experiences a new way of acting thinking or feeling finds the new pattern gratifying or useful and incorporates it into the repertoire of behavioursWhat is Taught and What is LearnedWe dont always learn what is specifically taught to us eg Finance classWhat is taught but no learnedwasted effortWhat is both taught and learnedWhat is learned but not taughtfor better or for worseWhat Do Employees LearnPractical skillsjob specific skills knowledge technocal competenceIntrapersonal skillsproblem solving critical thinking alternative wor processes risk takingInterpersonal skillsinteractive skills such as communicating teamwork conflict resolutionOrganization cultural awarenesssocial normals of organizations company goals business operations expectations and prioritiesLearning Outcomes Learning outcomes can be classified according to five general categories according to Robert Gagne 1 Verbal Information facts knowledge principles and information or what is known as declarative knowledge 2 Intellectual skills learning of concepts rules and procedures and are sometimes referred to as procedural knowledge 3 Cognitive strategies application information and techniques and understanding how and when to use the infromtion 4 Motor skills involve coordination and execution of physical movements that involve the use of muscles eg Learning how to swim 5 Attitudes preferences and internal states associated with ones beliefs and feelings Attitudes are learned and can be changed considered the most difficult domain to influence through trainingTheories Covered in This Chapter 1 Learning Theories a Conditioning theory b Social learning theory c Adult learning theory 2 Theories of Motivation 3 Need theories a Maslows Need Hierarchy b Alderfers ERG theory 4 Process Theory of Motivation a Expectancy Theory b Goal Setting TheoryAct Theory Stages of LearningA theory developed by John Anderson which he calls Adaptive Character of Thought theoryDeclarative knowledge Knowledge compilation Procedural knowledgeLearning knowledge facts andIntegrating tasks into sequences toLearner has mastered the task and information simplify and streamline the task performance and they are automatic andPerformance is resource dependentPerformance becomes faster and more habitual because all of the attention and cognitive accurateThis stage can be performed with resources are required to learn the task relatively low attentionAcquiring information of how to drive a car When learning how to drive a car you are able You are able to divert your attention such as to get into the car and begin to drive without conversing with passengers or talking on the having to carefully think about every single phone thing you must doImplications for ACT TheoryRecognizes the fact that learning is a stage like process that involves three important stagesIndicates that different types of learning takes place at different stagesThe effects of both cognitive ability and motivational interventions on learning and performance depend on the stage of learning 2Learning StyleLearning style the way in which an individual gathers information and processes and evaluates it during the learning processAccording to Kolb there are four learning modes 1 Concrete Experience CE 2 Abstract conceptualization AC 3 Reflective observation RO 4 Active experimentation AELearning Style Learning Modes Meaning Examples of Each Learning Style Converging Abstract Thinking and doing eg Emphasizes the practical application of ideas and solving problems conceptualization and Devils Advocate Likes decisionmaking problemsolving and the practical application of active Learner ideas Prefers technical problems over interpersonal issues experimentation Diverging Concrete experience Feeling and watching Emphasizes the innovative and imaginative approach to doing things and reflective eg Social Comfort Views concrete situations from many perspectives and adapts by observation Learner observation rather than by action Interested in people and tends to be feelingoriented Likes such activities as cooperative groups and brainstorming Assimilating Abstract Thinking and watching Pulls a number of different observations and thoughts into an conceptualization and eg Fact Oriented integrated whole Likes to reason inductively and create models and reflective observation Learner theories Likes to design projects and experiments Accommodating Concrete experience Feeling and doing eg Uses trial and error rather than thought and reflection Good at and active Hands On Learner adapting to changing circumstances solves problems in an intuitive experimentation trialanderror manner such as discovery learning Also tends to be at ease with people An individuals learning style is a function of the way an individual gathers and processes information or what is known as learning modeAn individuals learning style is a function of The way heshe gathers information 1 Concrete experience CEfeeling 2 Abstract Conceptualization ACthinking The way heshe process or evaluate information 3 Reflective Observation ROdoing 4 Active Experimentation AEwatching1 Learning Theories A Conditioning TheoryLearning is a result of reward and punishment contingencies that follow a response to a stimulusA stimulus or cue would be followed by a response which is then reinforcedStrengthens the likelihood that response will occur again and that learning will resultThe Conditioning Process ConsequenceStimuluspositive reinforcmentBehaviourevents or cues in the negative reinforcmentresponse or set of environmen attract our responsesno consequenceattentionpunishmentConsequences 1 Positive Reinforcement application of a positive stimulus after an act 2 Negative Reinforcement removal of a negative stimulus after an act eg Alarm clock ringing 3 Punishment receiving a negative consequence for an undesirable actOrganizational Errors Involving ReinforcementRewards fail to serve as reinforcers when they are not made contingent on some specific desired behaviourOrganizations often fail to appreciate individual differences in preferences for reinforcersManagers often neglect important sources of reinforcement such as those administered by coworkers or intrinsic to the job
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