ARCH 131 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Wonderwerk Cave, Shanidar Cave, Mezmaiskaya Cave

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We interbred, most people have some neandertal dna. A number of similar fossils proved they were members of an ancient population, not diseased modern humans. 1890s-1930s: very productive years for discoveries of neandertal remains. Lots of cut marks and burning suggesting cannibalism. 60% complete skeleton of an older man with arthritis. We currently have around 500 neanderthal individuals from across the world. European h. heidelbergensis is the direct ancestor of neanderthals. Typical n dental features (taurodontism in molars, shovel-shaped incisors) Neanderthals faced almost 200,000 years of conditions colder than today. Only around 25,000 years of warm conditions similar to today. African & middle eastern fire use claims, 2-1mya; none are convincing, probably just natural fires. Fire residue (ash, burned bone) 30m inside cave. Oldest definitive evidence for people using fire dates to 300,000ya, hearths in. Bottom black layer indicates clear neanderthal fire use and stone tools (warmer period)

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