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Lecture 10

BUS 272 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Peanut Butter, Ingratiation, Knowledge Network


Department
Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Professor
Lieketen Brummelhuis
Lecture
10

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BUS 272: ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
LECTURE 10: POWER AND POLITICS
What is Power?
Capacity that A has to influence the behaviour of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s
wishes, as A possesses something that B desires. Power exists when someone is dependent
on someone else.
Power and Dependency go hand-in-hand, and cannot exist in the absence of either one.
When B has a fear of losing something that he/she values, it produces fear.
Sources of power:
I. Formal Power:
1. Reward Power: THE ABILITY TO GIVE REWARDS THAT OTHERS VALUE.
2. Coercive Power: THE ABILITY TO PUNISH OR GIVE INSTRUCTIONS. THIS POWER IS
ABSED ON FEARS. Example: firing, demoting, pressurizing, blackmailing, etc.
3. Legitimate Power: ABILITY TO USE AUTHOIRTY WHICH HAS BEEN GIVEN BECAUSE OF
OFFICIAL STATUS OR STRUCTURAL POSITION. Example, An elected President or
Prime Minister.
II. Personal Power:
4. Referent Power: THE ABILITY TO INFLUENCE BECAUSE PEOPLE ADMIRE PEOPLE
WHO ARE CONSIDERED A ROLE-MODEL. RELATED TO THE INDIVIDUAL’S EMOTIONAL
APPEAK, CHARISMATIC DYNAMISM, AND LIKEBILITY.
5. Expert Power: A PERSON WHO HAS EXPERTISE IN SOMETHING, YOU TEND TO LISTEN
TO THEM. THIS IS RELATED TO THE SKILL SETS THAT INDIVIDUALS POSSESS.
6. Information Power: A PERSON WHO HAS A WIDE-SOCIAL AND KNOWLEDGE
NETWORK AND PEOPLE TEND TO LISTEN TO HIM/HER.
*A manager or supervisor potentially has all of the above.
Possible Responses to Power:
1. Coercive Power: Resistance; Comply with the request by putting in limited effort;
just do it for the sake of it, increased mistrust.
2. Reward Power: Yes-Compliance if rewards are consistent with what employees
want. ; No-Resistance
3. Legitimate Power: Compliance because you get direct instruction from someone
who has power, but not increased commitment.
4. Expert Power: Highly positive and compliant response; involves rational arguments
as to why the employee should do something.- Commitment; employee decided this
5. Referent Power: Commitment- Supervisor uses his charm; employee decided this.
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Commitment: The person is enthusiastic about the request, and shows persistence un
carrying it out.
Compliance: The person goes along with the request grudgingly, puts in minimal effort, and
takes little initiative in carrying out request.
Resistance: The person is opposed to the request and tries to avoid it with such tactics as
refusing, stalling, or arguing about it.
Power can be used or cannot be used; However, Power can also be increases- How much
power someone has?
Dependence can be increased when the resource an individual controls is important, scare
and cannot be substituted.
You control resources viewed as important. Example: Oil. What is important is
situational.
Your resources are perceived as scarce.
Your resources have few or no substitutes.
Example: You’re apig ith a group ad eeryoe is raig for hoolate. Oly
Danny has one chocolate bar; you have peanut butter. Does Danny have a lot of power?
Why?
INFLUENCE TACTICS: How do those who have power influence others?
1.Legitimacy (legitimate)- simply refers to your legal, official status.
2.Pressure (coercive)- used when you have coercive power. Demands, threats, and
reminders. Downward influence.
3.Rational persuasion (expert)- can be used by anyone; by an expert who knows how to
solve a problem. Uses facts and logical presentation of ideas. Works everywhere.
4.Inspirational appeals (referent)- having mission, goals, values. Example: let’s do this-
referent based power. Downward-influencing tactic with subordinates.
5.Personal appeals (referent)- appealing to emotions- loyalty and friendship.
6.Exchange (information)- trade; offer benefits in return for support
7.Consultation- making someone feel they have a say in something; advise forum, pushing
someone in a direction, getting others involved.
8.Ingratiation: Using flattery, creating goodwill, being friendly prior to making request.
9.Coalitions- people who all want the same thing- group them together.
Answers to the quiz discussed in lecture:
A1: Ingratiation
A2: Inspirational Appeals
A3: Pressure
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