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Chapter 12 on Leadership in Organizational Settings.docx

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Business Administration
BUS 272
Graeme Coetzer

Chapter 12 Leadership in Organizational Settings Leadership - The ability to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness of the organizations of which they are members Shared Leadership - The view that leadership is broadly distributed rather than assigned to one person - Employees are leaders when they champion change in the company or team - Calls for: o Formal leaders willing to delegate power o Collaborative culture – employees support each other o Employees able to influence through persuasion Competency Perspective of Leadership - Personal characteristics that lead to superior performance in a leadership role - Identified as key influences on leadership potential and of effective leaders - Eight leadership competencies o Personality  Extroversion, conscientiousness, and other personality dimensions o Self-concept  Positive self-evaluation (high self-esteem, self-efficacy, internal locus of control) o Drive  Inner motivation to pursue goal  Inquisitiveness and action-oriented o Integrity  Truthfulness and consistency of words and actions o Leadership motivation  High need for socialized power  Motivation to lead others o Knowledge of the business  Understand the external environment  Enable to make more intuitive decisions o Cognitive and practical intelligence  Above-average cognitive ability to process information  Ability to solve real-world problems by adapting to, shaping, or selecting the appropriate environment (practical intelligence) o Emotional intelligence  Perceiving, assimilating, understanding, and regulating emotions - Limitations o Implies a universal approach o Alternative combinations of competencies might work just as well o Leadership is relational, not just something within the person o Competencies refer to leadership potential, not performance Authentic Leadership - The view that effective leaders need to be aware of, feel comfortable with, and act consistently with their values, personality, and self-concept Know Yourself Be Yourself Engage in self-reflection Feedback from trusted sourcesDevelop your own style Know your life story Apply your values Maintain a positive core self- evaluation Behavioral Perspective - Directive (task-oriented) behaviors o Assign work, clarify responsibilities o Set goals and deadlines, provide feedback o Establish work procedures, plan future work  Increasing directive leadership results in higher job performance - Supportive (people-oriented) behaviors o Concern for employee needs o Make workplace pleasant o Recognize employee contributions o Listen to employees  Increasing supportive leadership reduces employee absenteeism, grievances, turnover and job satisfaction - Limitations o These categories mask subcategories of leader behavior that may be distinct o Assumers best leaders display a high level of both supportive and directive styles  But best styles seems to depend on the situation Servant Leadership - Leaders serve others toward their need fulfillment, personal development, and growth - Described as selfless, egalitarian, humble, nurturing, empathetic, and ethical coaches - Three main features o Natural calling to serve others o Maintain a humble, egalitarian, accepting relationship o Anchor decisions/actions on ethical principles Contingency Perspective - Path-Goal Leadership o Effective leaders provide the information, support, and other resources, and ensure that rewards are linked to good performance o Several employee and situational contingencies to determine the best leader style o Styles  Directive  Consist of clarifying behaviors that provide psychological structure for employees  Includes judicious use of rewards and disciplinary actions  Supportive  Provide psychological support  People-oriented behaviors  Participative  Encourage and facilitate employee involvement in decisions  Achievement-oriented  Encourage peak performance through goal setting and positive self-fulfilling prophecy Path-Goal Leadership Theory Leadership Behaviors Directive Employee/ Environmental Contingencies Leader Effectiveness Supportive Participative Employee motivation Achievement- oriented Employee satisfaction acceptance of leader Path-Goal Contingencies - Skill and experience o Combination of directive and supportive leadership Is best for employees who are inexperienced and unskilled  Directive: give information about how to complete the task  Supportive: help to cope with the uncertainties of unfamiliarity at work - Locus of control o Internal  Believe that they have control over their work environment
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