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PSYC 100
Jaime Palmer

Motivation: Process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of a goal-directed behaviour. tion.htm Origins of motivation - Instincts.  Inherited characteristics.  Common to all members of a species.  Automatically produce a particular response to a particular stimulus. - Maintenance of homeostasis (equilibrium) Homeostasis: State of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain.  Drives. Internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce tension. - Approach pleasure and reward.  -Behavioural activation system – stimulated by signals of potential reward and positive need gratification. - Avoid pain and punishment.  Behavioural inhibition system – responds to stimuli that signal potential pain, nonreinforcement and punishment. o Limbic system: Amygdala & Hippocampus. - COG processes  Incentives (values)  Expectancy x value theory: motivation = expectancy X incentive value  Intrinsic (value for it’s own sake) vs. extrinsic motivation (physical values = money, car, bf, house) - Psychodynamic and humanistic  Self-determination theory has 3 psychological needs: o Competence: Feelings of activeness or success. o Autonomy: Freedom of authority or pressure. o Relatedness: Forming meaningful social bonds.  Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs. Hunger & Weight regulation: physiology - Metabolism  Energy utilization. How is energy effectively utilized. - Set points  Biological standards for the regulation of body weight. Genetically predetermined range of “normal”. - Signals: eating and stopping eating.  Glucose.  Cholecystokinin CCK - Cannon & Washburn - Signals: appetite and weight - Signals: eating and stopping eating  Glucose  Cholecystokinin CCK - Signals: appetite and weight  Leptin (which does not work since it’s regulatory) Mechanism: appears to be the monitoring of Lepting, a protein produced by fat cells that are full. - Brain mechanisms  Hypothalamus (endocrine) o Lateral hypo: stimulation initiates eating, even in full animals. o Ventromedial hypo: stimulation leads to cessation of eating, ablation leads to ravenous eating. o Periventricular nucleus: play a key role in signaling. - Positive reinforcement. - Beliefs. - Social pressures. Culture - Food availability - Food tastes and variety - Classical conditioning - Cultural norms - Social setting Obesity - World’s heaviest man and woman - Body mass index BMI - Problems:  Physical and health o Stigma and harassment o Stereotypes and judgment - Genetic - Environment  Abundance  Super value menu  Technology  High levels of dopamine (reward and pleasure) o Ex: Pimas of Arizona. Eating disorders - Anorexia nervosa  Intense fear of being fat.  Restrict food intake.  View themselves as fat.  90% of anorexia patients are women. - Bulimia nervosa  Afraid of becoming fat.  Binge-eating followed by purging.  Usually maintain normal weight.  90% of bulimic patients are women.  Severe physiological consequences o Gastric problems o Eroded teeth - Anorexics don’t see food restriction as problematic, but bulimics do. Cau
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