Motivation: Process that influences the direction, persistence, and
vigor of a goal-directed behaviour.
Origins of motivation
Common to all members of a species.
Automatically produce a particular response to a particular
- Maintenance of homeostasis (equilibrium)
Homeostasis: State of internal physiological equilibrium that the body
strives to maintain.
Drives. Internal tension that motivate an organism to behave
in ways that reduce tension.
- Approach pleasure and reward.
-Behavioural activation system – stimulated by signals of
potential reward and positive need gratification.
- Avoid pain and punishment.
Behavioural inhibition system – responds to stimuli that signal
potential pain, nonreinforcement and punishment.
o Limbic system: Amygdala & Hippocampus.
- COG processes
Expectancy x value theory: motivation = expectancy X
Intrinsic (value for it’s own sake) vs. extrinsic motivation
(physical values = money, car, bf, house)
- Psychodynamic and humanistic
Self-determination theory has 3 psychological needs:
o Competence: Feelings of activeness or success.
o Autonomy: Freedom of authority or pressure.
o Relatedness: Forming meaningful social bonds.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs. Hunger & Weight regulation: physiology
Energy utilization. How is energy effectively utilized.
- Set points
Biological standards for the regulation of body weight.
Genetically predetermined range of “normal”.
- Signals: eating and stopping eating.
- Cannon & Washburn - Signals: appetite and weight
- Signals: eating and stopping eating
- Signals: appetite and weight
Leptin (which does not work since it’s regulatory) Mechanism:
appears to be the monitoring of Lepting, a protein produced
by fat cells that are full.
- Brain mechanisms
o Lateral hypo: stimulation initiates eating, even in full
o Ventromedial hypo: stimulation leads to cessation of
eating, ablation leads to ravenous eating.
o Periventricular nucleus: play a key role in signaling.
- Positive reinforcement.
- Social pressures. Culture
- Food availability
- Food tastes and variety
- Classical conditioning
- Cultural norms
- Social setting
- World’s heaviest man and woman
- Body mass index BMI
Physical and health
o Stigma and harassment
o Stereotypes and judgment
Super value menu
High levels of dopamine (reward and pleasure)
o Ex: Pimas of Arizona.
- Anorexia nervosa Intense fear of being fat.
Restrict food intake.
View themselves as fat.
90% of anorexia patients are women.
- Bulimia nervosa
Afraid of becoming fat.
Binge-eating followed by purging.
Usually maintain normal weight.
90% of bulimic patients are women.
Severe physiological consequences
o Gastric problems
o Eroded teeth
- Anorexics don’t see food restriction as problematic, but bulimics do.