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Lecture 6

HIST 2200Y Lecture 6: Lecture 6 - Second Industrial Revolution (Oct. 30)

Course Code
HIST 2200Y
Antonio Cazorla- Sánchez

of 3
HIST-2200Y October 30, 2013
Second Industrial Revolution, Imperialism and Mass Politics
Second Industrial Revolution
Revolution of technology
Commune – First socialist government ever, ended with thousands of French
people executed and Paris in flames
Great economic growth and change after the memory of the Commune
Markets became integrated, free exchange and trade
Occurred after WWI
Exposure of European talent
New management techniques, invented modern marketing
Governments played an important role by implementing laws to change the way
businesses were run (allowing people to be safer with their money – their
companies could become bankrupt although they themselves could not)
Companies controlling whole sectors of the economy
New products were introduced to change the way people live, examples: the
typewriter, telephone (Scottish CanadianAlexander Bell), the internal
combustion engine (cars)
Karl Benz – in 1885 makes a workable gas engine
Electricity becomes widely used, allowed people to work into the night, made
night life possible, made walking the streets safe
Eiffel Tower was built, age of engineering wonder, people could go to the top in
electric elevators
Boats were moving 2 million people per year, moving food and people
Chemical fertilizers were invented, increased the production of soil, machines
also helped
Barbed wire was invented at this time, made easy fences for cattle
Canning and refrigeration – allowed meats to be transported, made meat cheaper,
increased protein in Europeans (more meat = more energy)
Second revolution for Britain, although a first revolution for the rest of Europe
British innovators did not do much during this revolution
Many countries surpassed Britain, example America, spending more money on
England was strong in finance, London was the central of capital and trade for the
war, investment went through London
Germany had highly skilled electrical and chemical engineers
Armed Peugeot – a vehicle for the French military
Alsace-Lorraine – a territory created by the German empire
In some countries only some regions industrialized
Bohemia – Austria’s industrial region
Catalonia – Spain’s industrial region
Basque Country - Spain’s industrial region
Germany invested in education 7 times more than Italy
Denmark specialized in agro industries
HIST-2200Y October 30, 2013
Russian empire was the last to industrialized, centered around St. Petersburg and
Moscow, very harsh to workers (miserable and short life), funded by France
Trans-Siberian, between Moscow and Vladivostok – train, started in 1867 and
finished in 1916, funded by France, peasants had to pay a lot in taxes
Introduced white collar workers – office employers, people who work with
information, people with education (math, working with numbers), jobs for young
and unmarried women (paid lower than men), service jobs (secretaries, clerks)
Department store – fixed prices, products are from all over the world, women
have a new public role, respectable middle class women role, could shop through
a catalog, buying products for enjoyment (tea, sugar, tobacco, shoes, oil – adding
fat to the European diet, fine soap – introduced for washing your body and not
just clothes)
Flush toilets start coming into the household, also having a fixed bathtub instead
of having a mobile one (bathtubs used to mean someone was dying). Bathing
becomes a regular habit for those who can afford it
Suez Canal – an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the
Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea
Disraeli – played a central role in the creation of the modern Conservative Party,
defining its policies and its broad outreach
Alexandria – port, mouth of Nile river, invaded by British, changed the crops
system, brought in a new irrigation system, brought in cotton and silk to feed
British industry, originally Alexandria could provide their own food
Algeria – Africa, invaded by British, wanted a new route to India, dispossess
Muslims from their land and gave it to French settlers
Artisans lives were ruined by British and French goods
Tunisia – Africa, put Africans to work, looking for new sources of goods
Berlin in 1884-1885 – international conference, ending the dispute of who would
take over Africa by the Europeans
British empire controlled right side of Africa, French empire controlled the top
left, Belgium had some of the middle, Germany had some middle, Spain had a
little tiny bit near the left top, Portuguese had a little too
King Leopard – king of Belgium, founding and exploitation of Congo, treated the
people their horribly, killed 7 million blacks (more than the Holocaust), Congo
taken from the king and then things somewhat improved
Union of South Africa – many hard Protestants went there to steal the land from
the blacks, wanted to created a racist utopia, discovered gold
Cecil Rhodes – an English businessman, politician in South Africa
Boers – British attacked the Boers (Dutch settlers) over gold
Kipling – wrote a book about the white men having the task of bringing
civilization to other races
Asia was rich in manufactory
Indian National Congress – founded in 1885 by educated Indians
Malay – controlling traffic between Indian and the Pacific
HIST-2200Y October 30, 2013
Burma – conquered by the British
Saigon – in Vietnam, was the capital of a French colony
Hanoi – in Vietnam, under France’s rule
Meiji – an emperor of Japan
1868 Japan went through a revolution, reforms in education and industrialization,
soon will expand into China
Imperialism not only for the white man, Japan adopted it
The Emergence of Mass Politics
German Social Democratic Party was the biggest
1889 Socialist International – an organization of socialist and labour parties
formed in Paris
Karl Marx – believed capitalism lead to more wealth lead to more poor, believed
in revolution; human societies progress through class struggle
Bakunin – founder of collectivist anarchism philosophy, one of the social
anarchist tradition of anarchism
Socialist rejected nationalism
Rerum Novarum, 1891 – by the Pope, Catholics should engage in reforming, no
Reform Act, 1884 – England, expanded the number of orders, more men got the
right to vote including workers and artisans
Constitution of 1875 – male supremacy
Socialism became a culture
Bismarck – provoked wars that made Prussia dominant over Austria and France,
and lined up the smaller German states behind Prussia
Kulturkampf – cultural war against the Catholics, later on realized that it was not
the Catholics but the Socialists
Russia was the only one who had an absolute ruler aka monarch, they are the first
to fall during the war because of revolution