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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1412
Paul Messing

BIOL1412 01 27 2014 Efferent (Motor) NS: (Fig. 11.17) 1) Autonomic NS: - CNS ⇒ sm. + card. muscle, glands - 2 neurons to effector (preganglionic + postganglionic) - ANS neurons also distinguished by type of nt released a) cholinergic =ACh b) adrenegic = norepinephrine (NE) - 2 divisions: a) Sympathetic NS: (SNS) - fun'c = prepares body for activity - fight or flight response - activated during exercise CNS preganglionic postganglionic (cell bodies in sp. cord) ⇙ ⇙ | O--------|--------------------‹O---------------------‹ E *IMPORTANT* | | ⇖ | | axons exit ganglion nt = NE | | via sp. nerves nt =ACh (except at sweat | sp. cord | T1 - L2 * Note: to stop chem. stimulation - need to remove nt (Fig. 11.17) ⇒ ACh broken down by acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) - on postsynaptic membrane (cell body/dendrites of postsynaptic neuron) ⇒ NE broken down by MAO (monoamine oxidase) - in synaptic-end bulb of the neuron that released it b) Parasympathetic NS: (PSNS0 - fun'c = rest + digest ⇒ "housekeeping" (Fig. 11.17) CNS (cell bodies in brain stem, sacral, sp. cord) CNS preganglionic postganglionic O----------------------------‹O------------------------‹ E ganglion nt =ACh nt =ACh * most organs innervated byANS have both SNS + PSNS - usually have opposite actions * ANS regulates internal processes continuously + automatically eg. heart rate ⇒SNS excites, PSNS inhibits (Fig. 18.16) * Effects of ANS (Table 14.4) Organ (s) SNS (fight or flight) PSNS (rest + digest) 1. Pupils of Eyes dilate constrict (iris muscle) 2. Heart ⇑ heart rate (HR) and ⇓ HR force of contraction 3. Gastrointestinal tract ⇓ motility ⇑ motility 4. Blood Vessels vasoconstriction * no innervation of blood (sm. muscle)
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