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Lecture 10

BIOB11H3 Lecture 10: 2017 OP10

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Dan Riggs

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OP10: Gene Regulation II: Transcription factors and microarray technology
Smart Pages: Figs 12-35, 37, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44
Vocabulary Words: Transcription factor types/DNA binding & activation domains/hetero vs.
homodimer/ combinatorial control/microarray technology
Central Ideas:
1. Transcription factors (TFs) often bind to palindromic DNA sequences via multiple non-
covalent interactions.
2. Two functional domains exist in transcription factors: DNA binding and transcriptional
3. There are several classes of TFs, which are usually distinguished by particular protein
motifs (e.g. the leucine zipper)
4. Depending on the TF, it may function by forming homodimers, and it may form
heterodimers with other subunits.
5. Combinatorial control is manifest by formation of heterodimers-many combinations can
be made from a small number of TFs.
6. Activation domains often work by recruiting components of the preinitiation complex to
the promoter of the gene.
7. Microarray technology has been developed to examine global changes in the transcript
profile of two samples (e.g. a control cell and one treated with a drug).
Questions a scientist might ask:
1. Why might the expression of a gene be regulated by multiple TFs?
2. Why do most TFs bind to the major groove of DNA?
3. How might I use a gene chip to identify the targets of a TF?
Sample multiple choice question:
Which of the following characteristics describe the leucine zipper motif?
a. A region of a protein that contains many tandemly repeated leucine residues.
b. A region in which a molecule of zinc coordinates the interaction of leucines.
c. A region containing leucines every seventh amino acid.
d. A region that contains basic residues involved in DNA binding.
e. Both c and d.
Analytical Questions:
1. How could you test the role of a 5 untranslated region of a gene?
2. See question 1 on page 494.
3. See question 17 on pages 511.
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