CHMA10H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Aqueous Solution, Chemical Equation, Stoichiometry

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CHMA10 Lecture 1: Chemical Review and Stoichiometry
- Chapter 4 in textbook
- 4.3: Solutions and Solubility
o Solution: a homogenous mixture of two or more substances
Electrolytes: a solution containing ions within it that can transport
electrons
Essentially these are solutions that are able to conduct electricity
Strong Electrolytes: substances that completely dissociate into
ions when they dissolve in water
o The resulting solutions are strong electrolytic solutions
Nonelectrolytes: compounds that do not dissociate into ions when
dissolved in water
These compounds cannon conduct electricity
Solvent: the majority component of the mixture
Solute: the minority component of the mixture
Aqueous solution: a solution in which water acts are the solvent
o Solubility Rules
1: All salts containing cations from the group 1 metals as well as
ammonium ions are soluble
2: All nitrates, ethanoates, chlorates, and perchlorates will always be
soluble
3: Salts with Ag+, Pb-2, and Hg2+2 are insoluble
4: Most chlorides, bromides, and iodides are soluble
5: Sulfates are soluble except when in molecules containing Ca+2, Sr+2, or
Ba+2
6: Carbonates, hydroxides, oxides, phosphates and sulfides are all
insoluble
These rules have to be followed in order
Eg: Rule 1 tales precedence over rule 2 etc.
- Precipitation Reactions: reactions where an insoluble solid product is formed
- Steps to balance chemical equations
o 1: Write the unbalanced equation.
Chemical formulas of reactants are listed on the left-hand side of the
equation
Products are listed on the right-hand side of the equation
Reactants and products are separated by putting an arrow between them
to show the direction of the reaction
Reactions at equilibrium will have arrows facing both directions
o 2: Balance the equation
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