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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Lecture 8 • test is on: small pox, measles, malaria • people could not distinguish between other rash diseases -people get diseases at a different severity and virulence -early description of measles: differentiated small pox and measles and thought they came from the same cause -disease was welcomed as a way to get rid of the ʻso called poisonsʼ • modern history dates to the 16th and 17th century -clearly separated measles from small pox and recognized other related complications -out of 10children, 8 out of 10 got measles from blood transmission and it was then recognized as being transmitted through contagion • encephalitis is not just related to measles... also related to herpes, chicken pox, west nile virus -can occur during or after infection; not just restricted to measles (years later) -cancrom orus or norma: destruction of the tissue around the mouth and nasal cavity • peter panum- directed by the danish government to conduct the first epidemiological study; about 7800 inhabitants and 102 died of measles; 17 isolated islands -features important to the island: consists of difference terrain, mountains, cool temperature, clusters of houses, only way to go through one cluster to the other is through the sea -specifically, because of the closeness of the inhabitants, the arrival of any boat was noted and welcomed -people gathered together when new visitors arrived -visits from danish mainland was rare but documented -seaman from Copenhagen infected the population -followed the course of the epidemic from island to island through boats • four important facts were discovered by peter -transmission occurs the most 3 to 4 days before rash appears -contagious through the respiratory route of transmission • 1910: hektoen- virus is present in the blood 1963: enders- isolated virus and produced vaccine for it -1 in 100 000 people develop sub-acute sclerosing panencephalitis about 5 to 10 years after acute measles • paramyxovirdae -disease of the respiratory system -transmitted from nose and throat secretions- direct -very contagious -records of getting infected when people enter the room where people with measles were in -lives for a short period of time on droplets of air -four days before until four days after rash are the highest periods of infectivity -virus does not survive on dry surfaces -humans are the only host -persistence of measles depends on how many humans have measles in the community -infants receive antibodies transplacentally -this is passive immunity through the placenta • there are episodes and people will get measles with an outbreak or exposure to the virus -symptoms begin with a fever following the incubation period of 7-14 days • 3 stages: 1. prodrome stage: -fever -coryza or head cold, cough, conjunctivitis -photophobia/ sensitivity to light -inflammation of the eyeʼs outer membrane 2. enanthem stage- two to four days later (late prodrome) -koplickʼs spots in the mouth resembling small grains of white sound surrounded by white
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