LEC 6.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Joanna Heathcote

LEC 6: MOTIVATION AND ITS COMPONENTS -motivation is the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal - Effort - Persistence - Direction - Goals Effects of motivation: self-fulfilling prophecy, learned helplessness INTRINSIC VS. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Intrinsic motivation-stems from direct relationship b/w worker and the task and is usually self-applied Ex. Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, and competence derived from performing one’s job, and the sheer interest in the job itself Extrinsic motivation-stems from work environment external to the task and is usually applied by others Ex. Pay, fringe benefits, company policies, and various forms of supervision -some evidence shows that the availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the intrinsic motivation stemming from the task itself THE MOTIVATION-PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP -Performance refers to the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization -Motivation contributes to performance, the relationship is not one to one b/c a number of other factors also influence performance -it is possible for performance to be low even when a person is highly motivated -high motivation will not result in high performance if employees are deficient in important skills and abilities MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS 1. Physiological needs 2. Safety needs 3. Belongingness needs 4. Esteem needs 5. Self-actualization needs -the lowest-level unsatisfied need category has the greatest motivating potential -when a need is unsatisfied, it exerts a powerful effect on the individual’s thinking and behavior and is therefore motivational -when needs at a particular level of the hierarchy are satisfied, the individual turns his or her attention to the next higher level -self-actualization needs become stronger as they are gratified EXPECTANCY THEORY AND ITS MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS -A process theory that states that motivation is determined by the outcomes that ppl expect to occur as a result of their actions on the job -outcome, instrumentality, valence, expectancy, force -Boost expectancies: manager can ensure that their employees expect to be able to achieve first-level outcomes -Expectancies can usually be enhanced by: providing proper equipment, training, demonstrating correct work procedures, explaining how performance is evaluated, listen to employee problems -Clarify Reward Contingencies: employees should be convinced that first-level outcomes are clearly instrumen
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