Lecture 9: Managers and Managing & Organization Structures
Managing: It is not the arbitrary exercise of power. It is about getting things done. To get things done,
managers engage in 4 activities:
Planning: Determining what need to be done & they best way to achieve it. Managers communicate to
the people they work with, and they give them advice on what to do and how it needs to be done
(Mother telling you that you need to get up by 9am to be able to get to Grandma’s by 11am).
Organizing: Mobilizing the resources necessary to complete the task. They organize what needs to be
done on time. (Cleaning shirt & pants, and shoes)
Leading: Guiding and motivating others to meet the organization’s objectives. They teach and
demonstrate, and they also lead by example (Shake hands with your uncle like I did).
Controlling: It is a 3-stage process…
1. First thing you do is setting standards, what you want to achieve.
2. Second thing you do is monitoring your performance, what you actually achieve (did you
actually achieve your plan the way you wanted to)
3. Finally, you act to improve or correct performance, bring in line with standards (maybe you
shift the goal, or you think of new ways on how to achieve it).
An example would be your mother telling you to wash your hands before you come to lunch (step
one), then your mother will ask you to show her your washed hands (step two), finally she tells you
to go back and re-wash your hands properly (step three).
Traditional Structure: It looked like a pyramid shape. Appropriate in the 19 and 20 century. It was
based on a notion that a small number of people at the top gave orders. There were few bosses & lots
of workers. The communication flow was all downwards. These structures are appropriate for many
organizations such as centralized