Class Notes (922,613)
CA (542,889)
UTSC (32,931)
Psychology (8,019)
PSYB10H3 (558)
Lecture 20

Lecture 20 Notes

7 Pages
129 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
Lecture 20
Stereotyping & Prejudice
Group-Based Bias
Affect Prejudice
Behaviour Discrimination
Cognition Stereotyping | Outgroup Homogeneity
Cognitive Component: Stereotypes
Beliefs about the typical characteristics (usually traits) of group members
Schemes used to categorize complex social groups
Affective Component: Prejudice
A hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based only on their
membership in that group (not because you dont like something they did)
Behavioural Component: Discrimination
Unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group, simply because of his or her
membership in that group
Biased only based on them belong to group
Stereotyping
Stereotype across time:
oExisted since the existence of society (earliest humans); works as mental shortcuts
oNot new; but the content of those stereotypes are relevant to current situation
oKatz & Braly (1933):
Phase 1 of Princeton Trilogy”: in many cases, a high degree of consensus
(agreement)
Gave impetus to investigate the nature and content of stereotypes
First time stereotype was study and gave basis to it
oGilbert (1951)
Transition after WWII
oKarlins et al. (1969)
Transition during Cold War
oConclusion: Stereotypes are generally stable over time
Stereotypes are also contextually bound
Mechanisms:
oUsually broad and generalized
Trait based stereotype (internal disposition is the most common type)
Can also be dependent on context (If ____, Then _____ ) [The context makes a
different from what you expect of a person)
Who Stereotypes?
oMost people have knowledge of cultural stereotypes
oFactors affecting stereotype use:
Egalitarian ideologies (humans are equal and should be treated equally)
Automatic aspect of stereotyping:
oAutomatically activated since we all know what stereotypes are
www.notesolution.com
Controlled aspect of stereotyping:
oIf the person is egalitarian, the controlled process of the
stereotype is activated
The person will preconsciously reject stereotypical
judgments requires resources
Cognitive load
Greater use of cognitive resources
Greater load = more reliance on stereotypes (due to less resources
available)
Mendoza-Denton et al. (1999):
oMethod: Participants all high in egalitarian ideology
oExperimental condition: cognitive load or not
oRate the aggressiveness of African Americans and Caucasian
Americans
oResults: When low cognitive load, ratings of aggressiveness was
equal between whites and blacks. When high cognitive load, fell
under stereotypes and said black people were more aggressive
Meta-Stereotypes: Stereotypes about how outgroup members stereotype the ingroup
oThis drives a lot of the interesting behaviours that occur in intergroup interactions
Consequences of stereotyping:
oOutcomes for the perceiver (the person who is stereotyping)
Good:
Move quickly through social world
Conserve cognitive resources
Bad:
Selective encoding
Make more judgement errors
Selective Encoding by Stereotypes; Macrae, et al. (1994):
Method: Participants come to lab for person perception experiment
Read a list of personality traits of 3 targets
Stereotype conditions:
oStereotype Present: Group associated with each target
oStereotype Absent: No groups associated with the targets
Ask participants to recall as many traits as they can remember about each
target
Results: Neutral traits: The ratio of neutral to stereotypical traits was not
significantly different (stereotype slightly higher). In the Stereotypical
traits the ratio was MUCH higher for stereotypical traits.
oThey recalled all the stereotype relevant traits
oOutcomes for the target (the person being stereotyped)
Individual level:
Health outcomes
Higher mortality rates, heart attacks, diastolic BP
Social level:
Stereotype threat
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Lecture 20 Stereotyping & Prejudice Group-Based Bias Affect Prejudice Behaviour Discrimination Cognition Stereotyping Outgroup Homogeneity Cognitive Component: Stereotypes Beliefs about the typical characteristics (usually traits) of group members Schemes used to categorize complex social groups Affective Component: Prejudice A hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based only on their membership in that group (not because you dont like something they did) Behavioural Component: Discrimination Unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group, simply because of his or her membership in that group Biased only based on them belong to group Stereotyping Stereotype across time: o Existed since the existence of society (earliest humans); works as mental shortcuts o Not new; but the content of those stereotypes are relevant to current situation o Katz & Braly (1933): Phase 1 of Princeton Trilogy: in many cases, a high degree of consensus (agreement) Gave impetus to investigate the nature and content of stereotypes First time stereotype was study and gave basis to it o Gilbert (1951) Transition after WWII o Karlins et al. (1969) Transition during Cold War o Conclusion: Stereotypes are generally stable over time Stereotypes are also contextually bound Mechanisms: o Usually broad and generalized Trait based stereotype (internal disposition is the most common type) Can also be dependent on context (If ____, Then _____ ) [The context makes a different from what you expect of a person) Who Stereotypes? o Most people have knowledge of cultural stereotypes o Factors affecting stereotype use: Egalitarian ideologies (humans are equal and should be treated equally) Automatic aspect of stereotyping: o Automatically activated since we all know what stereotypes are www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit