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PSYB10 Lecture 1.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Lecture 1: Social Psychology Ahreby G. • Social Psychology: Overview • Course Logistics • History and Methods of Social Psych • Social Cognition First definition elaborated by Gordon Allport, a very social psychologist. Started off as a personality psychologist. • Uses scientific methods “to understand and explain how the thought, feeling and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of OTHERS.” Gordon Allport, 1985 Professor emphasized it had to be in the presences of others. We have a boarder view of social processes. (Dogs understand what’s going on to a certain extent and they have reliable emotions. Social psychology as a whole will focus on thought, feeling and behaviour of individuals. • Affect • Emotions, feelings, and mood • Behaviour • Verbal and nonverbal action • Cognition • Thought, sensation, perception, processing, and memory With any social phenomenon we are interested in, we will focus on three aspects. Speech is considered part of behaviour. We are interested how people think about others. Uses scientific methods “to understand and explain how the thought, feeling and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of [others].” Those other people don’t have to be directly in front of you to influence you. Picture of a monkey: primates have similar social behaviours as humans. They really like cucumbers. They also really love grapes. We think of animals very much focused on rewards and punishments. Bartering Task: A researcher, a human exchanger and they teach the monkeys to do a little series of behaviours The researcher gives the token to the monkey and if the monkey gives it back to the researcher, in return the monkey will get food. Equity Test: Both monkeys were given the token and both of them gave it back and got a cucumber. So it was a fair game. Inequity test: Both monkeys were given the token and both of them gave it back. However, one of them received a grape where the other received a cucumber and was really upset. It was an unfair game. When someone smiles at you, you smile back. • Social Cognition • Perceiving, understanding, and predicting others • Social Cognition • Interacting with others • Social Cognition • Attitudes and Persuasion • Group Processes • Conformity & Dissent • Group Processes • Social Roles and Norms • Interpersonal Processes • Emotions • Interpersonal Processes • Attraction and Close Relationships • Culture & Identity • Social Power and Hierarchy • Intergroup relations • Aggression • Prosocial Behaviour • Helping • Altruism • Stress and Health History of Social Psychology • Aristotle, Machiavelli, Darwin (some way social psychologists and considered philosophers) • Theory: Wundt & James • Triplett (1898): Social Facilitation • Kurt Lewin • World War II • Cultural Events Not a beautiful history! Theoretical History • Late 1800s: • Subfield of Philosophy • William James • Wundt: “Experimental Psychology” William James who’s in the department of philosophy at Harvard, he was a philosopher at mind. He makes theories about how our mind works. He incorporates in more science type of approaches. Wundt was famous for experimental psychology in Germany. The first experimental psychology in north America was at the university of Toronto, Mark Bolton. William James Quote “The community stagnates without the impulse of the individual. The impulse dies away without the sympathy of the community." Emphasizes that the reciprocal process we have with other people Triplett (1898) • Social Facilitation • Performance affected by presence of others Social facilitation is a phenomenon. Field experience with cyclist and noticed that sometimes in the presence of others improves performance or much worse. Kurt Lewin • “Father of Social Psychology” • Research interests • Perception and cognition • “Dyadic Interactionism” His interest was in perception and cognition. World War II • Government interest in Social Psychology • Persuasion and Propaganda • Key Social Psychologists funded to study effective War Bond Ads (Dark Past) WWII came around, the government became interested in social processes especially persuasion and propaganda and how we can get people to get on our side and to get them to buy war bonds. The government became for the first time funding the key people who are experimenting in attitudes and persuasion. They got hired and sold their souls. If you bring a fearful message and have a solution to that fear that is a very persuasive thing. While advertising war bonds, they were selling fear, racism in order to get them to spend their money and help the U.S. army. World War II • Post-war: • How did Nazi Germany happen? • Milgram’s “Obedience to Authority” World War II was a cultural event. After the WWII, how the Nazi Germany could have happened. Do you have to be a bad person to do bad things? NO. Culture Events • Murder of Kitty Genovese • March 13th, 1964 • At least 39 witnesses • No one intervened or even called the police • Darley’s & Latané’s “Bystander Apathy” research In 1964, in the spring, Kitty Genovese was a manager of a bar. She was walking to the parking lot to go home and was brutally murdered (stabbed several times). It went on for 40 minutes. The police was trying to learn more about the story and learned that 39 bystanders directly witnessed the crime and didn’t call the police. Many people didn’t call because they thought someone else has already made the call. Culture Events • Jonestown Mass Suicide • November 18th, 1978 • 907 people poisoned themselves (or were poisoned by their parents) He got these entire people move down to Guyana and have their own complex (close to 900 people living). They attacked the senator and they decided to kill themselves as a whole. They poisoned themselves and children. Methods in Social Psychology • Social Psychological Toolkit • Research and Statistical Methods Social Psychological Toolkit • Self-report/surveys • Reaction time tasks • Priming • Nonverbal/verbal behaviour • Neuroscience and Psychophysiology Self-report/surveys • Obtained by: • Pencil-and-paper • Computer survey • Interview The more you collect self-report data, the more you realize that everyone is different; people don’t answer exactly the same. People have different opinions. Reaction time tasks • Obtained by: • Computers (measured in milliseconds) • Stop watches • Video/Audio Especially found in social cognition. To measure the speed of thought and speed of your processing when you are exposed to a stimulus or when you are doing some behaviour. You can do this by stop watches or video and audio. Priming • Presented: Exposed to a stimuli • Subliminally - you don’t recognize you seen it • Explicit Priming – put it right in your face (super subliminal) Activating certain concepts in your mind, related concepts are more than likely to be activated. Nonverbal/verbal behaviour • Obtained by: • Video cameras • Audio recording • Close observation Key thing that social psychologists study Neuroscience • Obtained by: • Functional MRI (fMRI) – structure of the brain • Brain-damaged patients • Electroencephalogram (EEG) EEG – capture electro activity on the surface of the scalp Psychophysiology • Obtained by: • Spot & band electrodes • Temperature sensors • Plethysmographs • Saliva Research and Statistical Methods • Scientific Method • Variable types • Empirical Design: • Correlational • Quasi-experimental • Experimental Scientific Method • Hypothetico-deductive Method 1. Examine past knowledge/research 2. Form a theory (all about concepts) 3. Operationalize the theory into a hypothesis 4. Test hypothesis 5. Revise theory (this last step where people have trouble doing) Variable Types (variable - anything that you measure that will differ across people) • Dependent Variable = “DV” (trying to predict or the outcome) • Outcome • Independent Variable = “IV” (they`re your predictors, what you think will feed in to your outcome) • Predictor • Only implies causation when it is manipulated Correlational • Key Features: • 2 DVs (neither one of them is manipulated) • No experimental manipulation • Random sampling Ice creams sales are positively correlated with drowning deaths. Certainly not! Correlational • Statistical Analysis: • Correlation, regression, or Bayesian • Proper Interpretation: • Covariance and prediction • No causality Quasi-Experimental Designs • Key Features: • A defined “predictor” and “outcome” • IV is not manipulated • “Known groups” IV (e.g., sex, ethnicity, nationality) • Stratified random sampling – get enough people for each group • Comparison/Control Group It`s a correlation design. The key difference is there`s a predictor and outcome. We use known groups ahead of time. Quasi-Experimental Designs • Theory of Mind: • 2 Age Groups (3 & 5) Kids develop the theory of mind. The kid is hanging out in the lab and the lab researcher asked him what he th
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