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Lecture 8

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Connie Boudens

PSYB30 – Lecture 8 Purple Text – Prof’s Speech Intrapsychic Foundations - Psychodynamic view - Why Sigmund Freud? o We all “speak” Freud – i.e. Freudian slips – when you say something but you mean to say something else o Unconscious mind plays a large role o Ongoing research and theorizing in the area of psychodynamic psychology Driving Forces in Personality - The energy that our life force comes from - Divided into two types; duo model of instinct that Freud proposed: o Eros: the life instinct  Seeks to preserve human life  Does so by satisfying needs of hunger, thirst and sexual needs  Energy behind driving force: libido o Thanatos: the death instinct  Consists of aggressive forces: aggressive thoughts and actions and desires to return person to an organic state where they would have peace Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche - Most of what Freud talks about is conflict between different parts of the person - Freud: human existence is a constant struggle between life and death, between forces that seek to preserve a person‟s life and forces that seek to end the life (which are all proposed to be within that person); also between the individual‟s desires and the dictates of society Tripartite model of the psyche: 1. Id: original and most primitive part  Freud proposed that the Id was the oldest and most primitive part of the psyche  Part that animals have as well  In humans – part of the psyche that everyone is born with 2. Ego: realistic aspect – satisfies demands of id and keeps it in check  Aspect that is in touch with reality and in touch with the mundane; what is going on with the organism at the time  Function: to make sure that demands of the id get met without the organism getting in trouble  Calms the id down, and tells it that its demands will be satisfied but that there are restrictions to go by  Analogy: the id is like your dog before being house-trained; neutered (no rules of interaction, etc.) 3. Superego – internalization of society‟s values – consists of the conscience and ego-ideal  Ego-ideal: the ideal person that you feel you should be  Conscience: rules of right and wrong, etc.  Think of the psyche as a system with a limited amount of energy that flows between all three  Sometimes the id will be at the forefront, i.e. if you‟re hungry and cranky and start being irritable, it is because the demands of the id are so strong that the ego and superego are having a hard time keeping it at bay  Sometimes the ego has the upper hand because there is something very realistic and pressing at that moment that you need to do  Sometimes it is the superego, if there is something that you would really like to be doing, the superego will get oppressive and make you feel guilty for what you‟re doing  Within each person, different parts of the psyche will take precedence at different times; the way the person behaves; what we see as their personality consists of the way that they balance these three aspects  People who have an id-dominant personality – don‟t really care/pay attention to the needs of other people, want to get to what they want to get and want to get it right now  Ego-dominant – people who are very realistic and are able to make sense of their environment, and what is available in their environment, so that they are able to get the needs of the id meet and also satisfy demands of the superego  Superego-dominant – people who feel strongly about not only themselves, but other people following the dictates of society, doing what they should be doing, doing the right thing Does the Structural Model hold up to empirical support? - No solid evidence about proposed division of parts - But Ideas of conflict and behavioral compromise among forces among individuals remain important in psychology Divisions of the Mind: Topographic Model - Sometimes called the division of the psyche - „iceberg‟– where only the conscious part was above the water and the preconscious and the unconscious parts were under the water - Unconscious mind – all of the thoughts, feelings and so on that we are completely unaware of - Preconscious mind – stuff that can be called into awareness if you want it to be and if you have the right cues, i.e tip-of-the-tongue - Conscious mind – stuff that you are aware of - In Freudian theory, stuff that is in the unconscious mind is completely inaccessible o Material from dream analysis in theorized to be from the unconscious mind - Today, the unconscious is just that we not consciously aware of but that can be accessed in some way (i.e. implicit association test) Relationship of structural and topographic models - Superego, ego, id (pyramid, from top to bottom) - Unconscious mind – id is completely unconscious, we are never aware of what the id is doing, when we become aware of something that id is demanding or that the id wants, it arises as a kind of anxiety - The ego is partly unconscious, partly preconscious, and partly conscious - Superego – partly preconscious and partly conscious - There is no part of the superego that interacts directly with the id - Key: which parts of the models overlap Defense Mechanisms - With defense mechanisms, you are dealing with theAnxiety caused by id-superego conflict o The id is always wanting particular things, but sometimes it is inappropriate to fulfill those desires at that precise moment (i.e. grabbing food off another‟s plate to satisfy hunger) o When this conflict occurs, you don‟t become aware of it, it arises as anxiety in the ego, and you have to figure out how to deal with it - Unconscious aspect of ego steps in and tries to protect itself from feelings of anxiety; attempts to defend ego from this conflict Repression - Keeping an impulse from reaching consciousness; Impulse prevented from reaching consciousness; some negative unacceptable impulse that never actually reaches consciousness but causes the person to feel anxiety Suppression - Conscious work that is taking place to push the impulse down Sublimation - Transforming id impulses into something else; to more acceptable ones; taking the energy from the id and transforming it to something completely different that does not have to resemble the original thing that the id wanted you to do Projection - Ascribing your own undesirable impulses/qualities onto someone else Rationalization - Giving a rational explanation for your behaviour; i.e. I meant to do that - Done after doing something that you probably shouldn‟t have done Intellectualization - Detaching your thoughts about something from your feelings about something; uncoupling thought and feeling Undoing - Attempts to nullify an action or thought; make something seem like it never happened/completely forget about something that you did Reaction formation - act the exact opposite of how you actually feel towards something; converting an unacceptable impulse into its opposite An Example of Reaction Formation: Homophobia ByAdams, Henry E.; Wright, Lester W.; Lohr, BethanyA.Journal ofAbnormal Psychology. Vol 105 (3),Aug 1996, 440-445. Agroup of homophobic men and a group of non-homophobic men were exposed to sexually explicit erotic stimuli consisting of heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian videotapes, and changes in penile circumference were monitored. Only the homophobic men showed an increase in penile erection to male homosexual stimuli. - Study on a group of men who took a measure indicating that they had negative attitudes towards homosexuals (men), and then exposed them to erotic stimuli, measured changes in penile circumference - Homophobic men showed more penile erection to homosexual stimuli than non- homophobic men Theory of Psychosexual Development People pass through stages named for body part that is center of sexual pleasure; at each stage there is some sort of conflict/problem that has to be resolved before moving onto the next stage Conflict/trauma results in fixation on this conflict – if you don‟t successfully resolve the conflict, wind up fixated in that stage and wind with some personality characteristic as a result of your fixation Stages of Psychosexual Development Oral Oral receptive character: dependent, too trusting, not competent Oral aggressive character: envious, exploitative, manipulative o Center of sexual pleasure is around the mouth; infants put things in mouth, etc. o If overindulged at this stage – orally receptive – overly dependent on other people, too trusting of others, not competent in own right  Someone who had everything handed to them, spoon-fed a lot, hasn‟t their owno “chew their own food”, can‟t figure out how to do things on o If deprived at this stage – orally aggressive  Someone who didn‟t get fed enough, didn‟t get enough nutrition and oral stimulation as a child - tries to get those things from people as an adult Anal Anal retentive character: obstinacy, orderliness, rigidity, frugality  Holding onto their business, storing inside  Frugal, tidy, neat, stubborn with others, rigid in approach Anal expulsive character: emotional outbursts, disorganization, generosity, rebelliousness  Can be creative and generous, but also messy and “all over the place” o Children can be compliant with what parents want them to do or they can be defiant o Anus is center of pleasure o Children learn that they have some control over some aspect of their functioning, while most other things are just imposed on them o If fixated at this stage; if don‟t figure out how to get their needs for self- expression met and make their caregivers happy, can be anally retentive (if parents were too strict with potty training) or anally expulsive (if parents were too lax with potty training) Phallic (be familiar, not tested specifically) Phallic character in males: reaction to castration fear – reckless, bold behaviours  Still afraid of castration, which causes them to be reckless and bold Phallic character in females: continual striving for superiority over men  Feeling of inferiority comes from the fact that you don‟t have a penis o Oedipus complex: idea that at this stage, males want to sexually possess their mother; want to murder fathers to get mothers, but then get afraid that the father is going to castrate them for having desires of the mother, and because of that – they identify with the father in order to resolve the conflict of this stage  All of this is unconscious – they are unaware of their sexual desire for their mother o For women: no way to really successfully resolve this conflict and they wind up wanting to be men, develop penis envy Latency stage o Nothing really happens, everything sexual is more or less dormant Genital stage Genital character: mature and capable of adult intimacy o If you‟ve passed all the other stages and have reached the genital stage successful, you should be capable of having a mature, loving relationship with a partner and
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