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Psychology (7,620)
PSYB45H3 (335)
Amanda U. (5)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Amanda U.

Ex: modify psy classes behavior--> increase class participation and do well in class.  Targets:answer question, read chapters, attend lecture Positive Reinforcers we can use for this target:  Tangible Reinforcer: physically, like a gift card  Consumable Goods : candy or choco  Activity Reinforcer: more breaks in class  Social Reinforcer: praise from proff  Feedback Reinforcer: answer question correctly proff smiles back or says that answer was correct. Identifying and Strengthening Positive Reinforcers  For behaviors that are maintained by more than one reinforcer, we can assess the relative reward value of each reinforcer through functional analysis methods. We can determine what reinforcers to apply in our program and what existing reinforcers must overcome or eliminate to change the target behavior.  Generating hunches about what consequences will have high reward value can be a useful first step in identifying potential reinforcers for a particular individual.  Positive Reinforcement: adding something to situation that increases behavior.  Programmed Reinforcers: doesn't just naturally occur in the environment someone intentionally implements it. You can use a programmed reinforcers through positive reinforcement to change peoples behavior.  Programmed Reinforcers: deliberately provided with the goal of increasing specific behaviors. They are rewards that are deliberately applied with the intentions of strengthening specific behaviors.  Natural Reinforcer: happens as a normal part of everyday events. They are unprogrammed rewards people receive as a natural part of their everyday lives. Identifying Potential Reinforcers  Interviews and Questionnaires: a straightforward way to identify potential reinforcers is to ask individuals what items or experiences they like or find pleasurable. This can be done by them filling out questionnaires like Preferred Items and Experiences Questionnaires (PIEQ) or surveys. The PIEQ assesses young adults and adolescents preferences for dozens of potential reinforcers that are appropriate for that age group and that can be controlled and administered efficiently and effectively. PIEQ has high degrees of validity and reliability. Using indirect methods to identify reinforcers has some limitations. Those who are limited in speaking like children and mental disabiltiies may not be able to answer questions, so info is not accurate. Its better to use direct assessment methods. Direct Assessment Methods:  Good way to determine what consequences will reinforce a persons beh.  Observing and recording individuals reations toward the stimuli when they occur or are available. Can be carried out in two ways:  Naturalistic observations: observing the person in his or her natural environments and recording the frequency and duration of each behavior displayed. This approach identifies high- probability to serve as activity reinforcers. The activities that the person performs most frequently or for the longest amounts of time are likely to be good reinforcers.  Structured Tests: presenting a previously selected set of stimuli and assessing which ones the person prefers. The stimuli can be presented in two ways: a) one at a time, while collecting data on how soon the person approaches or reaches for the stimuli, or b) two or more at a time, while collecting data on which ones the person chooses . Structured tests are especially useful when we try to identify reinforcers for individuals who have severe learning or motor disabilities. It is also effective in changing childrens behavior. Enhancing Effectiveness:  Sampling: ex: shopping at Costco, people are allowed to sample at the store, this is don’t because they want to increase the behavior of buying the goods, so they let you taste something so you would buy it.  Modeling: modeling increases the effectiveness of the positive reinfocer because everyone just saw how you got the consequence so ex to get choca teacher says answer question, student answers questions and other students see him answer and get choca so they answer too. So the student models which behavior to do to get the choca. You let others watch you giving out the reward or enjoying the reinforcer which increases the behavior.  Publicly Posting o Performance: ex lawyer ads " I am william maatar I made 1000 dollars" or posting grades and names on door for students to see so ones who do poor want to do good" Enhancing Reinforcer Effectiveness:  Reinforcer Sampling: EO involves presenting a small or brief sample of the consequence before the behavior occurs to increase the likelihood that the person will make the response and get the reinforcer. Ex: to encourage a child with metal retardation to repeat a word you say, you might show the child a small bit of candy that he or she will receive after saying the word. Stores selling food sometimes a similar method, displaying the food or allowing customers to sample items they can buy in larger quantities.  Modeling: useful EO for increasing reinforcer effectiveness. Individuals who see others receiving and enjoying pleasant consequences for their behavior tend to increase the value they place on these consequences and copy the behavior they saw other people do. This effect was demonstrated with elementary schoolchildren who has mild retardation. The researcher had the teacher praise some children in the classroom when they were in their seats and paying attention to their work. Praising attentive behavior in these children increased the attentive behavior of the children who were praised and of classmates who were sitting near them.  Explaining or demonstrating: the value of a reinforcer is an especially useful EO for token reinforcers, which have no value in their own right. An explanation of a token reinforcement system can work with individuals who can understand it; but if they cant they’ll need to have the tokens either for desirable they already perform readily or for no particular behavior at all and then exchanging the tokens immediately for backup reinforcers.  Public Posting: or performance data is an effective EO, especially if the reinforcer is feedback or praise.  Using varied reinforcers: is an EO because the potency of a single reinforcer often declines with frequent use. This decline can be because of satiation or because the person habituates to-that is, gets "used to" or "tired of"-- a particular reinforcer. How to Administer Positive Reinforcement: Reduce Extraneous Counterproductive Reinforcers Three approaches can stop people from reinforcing someone's problem behavior:  Simplify to describe the situation to them and ask them to stop reinforcing the problem behavior.  Reinforce them for not reinforcing the target persons problem behavior. This method was used in the program to reduce the classroom tantrums of a girl named Diane. In addition to giving Diane tokens for nontantrum behaviors, the teacher attempted to reduce the social reinforcer she might receive from other students for disruptive behavior. If Diane had a tantrum, she was taken to the back of the room so her classmates couldn’t watch her, and the classmates were given candy treats if they didn’t turn around.  Other people share in the rewards the individual earns for improved behavior. The intervention for Dianes tantrums, the whole class would have a party if she did not have a tantrum for four half-days in a row. Who Will Administer Reinforcement?  Peer-Administered Reinforcement: children who can perform the target behavior can monitor other children's acts and provide reinforcement for correct responses. Ex: intervention to improve math skills in underachieving kids, whose classmates served as tutors. Jobs included keeping scored of the number of math problems each target student completed correctly. Comparing that number with the current goal, and deciding whether the student had earned any backup reinforcers.  Self-Adminsitered Reinforcement: used in behavior therapy. Problem with using self administered reinforcement is that sometimes people take unearned rewards difficult to know how to deliverate these errors are. Although it may seem that the indiciduals must know they have not erformed the bej. Oftentimes these reinforcement errors appear to result from the person simplu using bery lenient standards in assessing their beh. Three approaches can help reduce these errors. 1) training by using modeling and instruction methods can teach the person to apply more rigorous or accurate standards in assessing personal beh.  Having the person make his or her target beh. And goals public appears to increase accuract in self-reinforcement persons accuracy in self-reinforcement
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