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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - Socialization.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ivanka Knezevic

Socialization Definition Socialization is a lifelong, interactive process whereby human beings become members of society Outcome of socialization 1. Developing a sense of self: an individual identity i.e. awarenessof ideas and attitudes about one’s personal and social identity; and 2. Internationalisation of social expectations, i.e. learning of  Social interaction (cognitive and emotional skills, expectations about behaviour in different situations), statuses, roles, norms Social isolation/deprivation: isolated (feral) children Nature and Nurture Debate Relative importance of heredity and social processes in development of human characteristics (individuals and collective) View of heredity as potential that may be developed or neglected in social processes A self-fulfilling prophecy is an expectation that leads to behaviour that causes the expectation to become reality Example: IQ (deprived background; low teacher expectation; culturally-biased IQ tests) Epigenetics: study of ways in which environment modifies actualisation of genetic potential. “Nature vs. nurture” is a false duality Psychological Theories of Socialization Behaviourism (anti-introspective, positivist psychology): maturation and conditioning  Introspection is observation or examination of one’s own mental and emotional state  Maturation: the process of maturing or ripening  Conditioning: a process of changing behaviour by rewarding or punishing a subject each time an action is performed until the subject associates the action with pleasure or distress Psychoanalysis: emphasis on sexuality The self consists: id: subconscious needs and drives, pleasure principle ego: conscious thought balancing the id and superego, perceived as unique Superego: initialized social norms Child Development Theories: phases of cognitive
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