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Lecture 3

Sociology Lecture 3 notes

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Ivanka Knezevic

Sociology Lecture 3 Socialization; Theoretical approaches (continued) Feminism › Both macro – and microsociology › Patriarchy determines people’s opportunities in life. › Power structures and values, not biology, determine social position of males and females. › Patterns are gender inequality should be changed, barriers addressed, opportunities equalized. › Disagreement about relative importance of patriarchy and other forms of inequality (class, ethnicity, race): ∙ Maternal feminism: women are superior to men ∙ Radical feminism: women should be separate from men ∙ Marxist feminism: gender inequality is class-based ∙ Liberal feminism: importance of legal equality Post-modernism › Modernism (Thomson: Enlightenment) has not fulfilled its promise of rational, free and equal society. Therefore, all assumptions (rationally, universality, belief in progress) and results of modern thought should either be deconstructed or rejected. › Stresses the validity of subjective meaning: there is no truth about society (cf. positivism) and all perceptions/interpretations of it are equally valid. › Extreme post-modernism: society does not exist – only people’s perceptions and interpretations of it exist. Definitions › Socialisation is a lifelong, interactive process whereby human beings become members of society. › Outcomes of socialisation: 1. Developing a sense of self: an individual identity i.e. awareness of ideas and attitudes about one’s personal and social identity and 2. Internationalisation of social expectations, i.e. learning of:  Social interaction (cognitive and emotional skills, expectations about behaviour in different situations), statuses, roles, norms. › Social isolation/deprivation isolated (feral) children. Nature and nurture debate › Relative importance of heredity and social processes in development of human characteristics (individual and collective) ; › View of heredity as potential that may be developed or neglected in social processes. › A self-fulfilling prophecy is an expectation that leads to behaviour that causes the expectation to become a reality. › Example: IQ (deprived background; low teacher expectations; culturally-biased IQ tests.) › Epigenetics: study of ways in which environment modifies actualisation of genetic potential. “nature vs. nurture” is a false duality. Psychol
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