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Lecture 3

Sociology Lecture 3 notes

3 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA01H3
Professor
Ivanka Knezevic

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Sociology Lecture 3
Socialization; Theoretical approaches (continued)
Feminism
Both macro and microsociology
Patriarchy determines people’s opportunities in life.
Power structures and values, not biology, determine social position of males and females.
Patterns are gender inequality should be changed, barriers addressed, opportunities equalized.
Disagreement about relative importance of patriarchy and other forms of inequality (class, ethnicity,
race):
Maternal feminism: women are superior to men
Radical feminism: women should be separate from men
Marxist feminism: gender inequality is class-based
Liberal feminism: importance of legal equality
Post-modernism
Modernism (Thomson: Enlightenment) has not fulfilled its promise of rational, free and equal society.
Therefore, all assumptions (rationally, universality, belief in progress) and results of modern thought
should either be deconstructed or rejected.
Stresses the validity of subjective meaning: there is no truth about society (cf. positivism) and all
perceptions/interpretations of it are equally valid.
Extreme post-modernism: society does not exist only people’s perceptions and interpretations of it
exist.
Definitions
Socialisation is a lifelong, interactive process whereby human beings become members of society.
Outcomes of socialisation:
1. Developing a sense of self: an individual identity i.e. awareness of ideas and attitudes about one’s
personal and social identity and
2. Internationalisation of social expectations, i.e. learning of:
Social interaction (cognitive and emotional skills, expectations about behaviour in different
situations), statuses, roles, norms.
Social isolation/deprivation isolated (feral) children.
Nature and nurture debate
Relative importance of heredity and social processes in development of human characteristics
(individual and collective)
;
View of heredity as potential that may be developed or neglected in social processes.

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Description
Sociology Lecture 3 Socialization; Theoretical approaches (continued) Feminism › Both macro – and microsociology › Patriarchy determines people’s opportunities in life. › Power structures and values, not biology, determine social position of males and females. › Patterns are gender inequality should be changed, barriers addressed, opportunities equalized. › Disagreement about relative importance of patriarchy and other forms of inequality (class, ethnicity, race): ∙ Maternal feminism: women are superior to men ∙ Radical feminism: women should be separate from men ∙ Marxist feminism: gender inequality is class-based ∙ Liberal feminism: importance of legal equality Post-modernism › Modernism (Thomson: Enlightenment) has not fulfilled its promise of rational, free and equal society. Therefore, all assumptions (rationally, universality, belief in progress) and results of modern thought should either be deconstructed or rejected. › Stresses the validity of subjective meaning: there is no truth about society (cf. positivism) and all perceptions/interpretations of it are equally valid. › Extreme post-modernism: society does not exist – only people’s perceptions and interpretations of it exist. Definitions › Socialisation is a lifelong, interactive process whereby human beings become members of society. › Outcomes of socialisation: 1. Developing a sense of self: an individual identity i.e. awareness of ideas and attitudes about one’s personal and social identity and 2. Internationalisation of social expectations, i.e. learning of:  Social interaction (cognitive and emotional skills, expectations about behaviour in different situations), statuses, roles, norms. › Social isolation/deprivation isolated (feral) children. Nature and nurture debate › Relative importance of heredity and social processes in development of human characteristics (individual and collective) ; › View of heredity as potential that may be developed or neglected in social processes. › A self-fulfilling prophecy is an expectation that leads to behaviour that causes the expectation to become a reality. › Example: IQ (deprived background; low teacher expectations; culturally-biased IQ tests.) › Epigenetics: study of ways in which environment modifies actualisation of genetic potential. “nature vs. nurture” is a false duality. Psychol
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