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SOCA02H3 (398)

Social Control.docx

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Sheldon Ungar

Social Control – W6 Crime Control • Do we explain deviance o Assume conformity as a given/norm? • Do we explain conformity o Assume deviance as a given/norm? • In fact we do both; people can develop ties/bonds to the established order (it’s more complicated) Control Theory (Hierschi) • Deviance does not require special motivation • The real question is “Why don’t more people engage in deviance?” Deviance • Have strong ‘prosperity’ to deviance; can potentially be rewarding o Trainspotting (movie) about heroin addicts Conformity due to strong social controls • Attachment/involvement in concrete institutions o Stake in conformity • Girls lower crime rate because they are more supervised & more attachment to family Control Theories Stress Attachment/Involvement • Family • Non-deviant peers • Schools • Jobs • Community • Sports Can social control work from above? • Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment o Police randomly arrest for spousal arrest o Arrest => less subsequent violence o Less likely to re-offence o The experiment contributed to mandatory arrest Specify effects of mandatory arrest • Better to arrest employed persons • More likely to re-assault if unemployed vs. less likely to re-assault if employed (don’t want to lose job) If you have stakes in society: Mandatory arrests lower subsequent offences If no stake : Mandatory arrests increases subsequent offences Social Control • Can result in an increase in crimes Labelling Theory • Social reactions to deviance are an important cause of deviance • Attempts to control deviance makes it more likely (Deviance Amplification) • When agents of social control label some behaviours as deviant can stabilize/reinforce deviant identities Deter from above • Control deviance by making costs too great • Deter if perceive punishment as o Rapid o Certain o Serve • 1&2 matter the most • 3 is questionable • ‘throw them in jail & throw away the keys’ In America the ‘3 strikes you’re out’ • Mandatory Life sentence • Need to balance the severity of crimes with punishment New trend • Crime rates falling since early 90’s • Murder rate is 80% lower than its peak • Falling crime rates are a general trend? • More police; community based police: CompStat real time data base on criminal activity • Broken Window Theory (Get rid of a lot of people) o Control disorder, disintegration (Panhandling, public drunkness & Graffiti) • Stop & Frisk o Crime is an opportunity • Harassing Minorities (Problems) o Afro-Americans (stop & frisking) o Increase jailed population (expensive) o And rates are falling in places where no proactive policing occurs (how do we explain this?) • Policing & Prisons o 1/3 of people in j
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