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Lecture 10

Lecture 10

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University of Toronto St. George
B Ewald

Gladiatorial Games - could take place outside of amphitheatre - Field of mars - Forum romanum - Has a system of tunnels under it that allowed underground access to the forum itself, through which stage props or animals could be lifted onto the surface - Ephemeral structures - Circus romanum - the colliseum was not the first amphitheatre built in rome, or anywhere in the roman empire - But after it had been built it became a model for all other amphitheatres - Before it was built there was a provisional theatre made of wood - two theatres formed in opposite directions, which could be put together for games, so that the form would have been one of the amphitheatre - first stone theatre buitl by augusts’general in 1 cent BC (29 BC) - But nothing of this one is left; destroyed in fire of Nero - Was also in field of mars, outside the pomerium - But we don’t know its exact location - Originated as funerary games for aristocratic deaths - Dares back at least to 6t hcent BCE - On accasion of burial of prominent memebrs of aristocracy these funerary games were held - Meant to honor who was buried - But its unclear what the real meaning meant - Exorcism? - in any case associaed with aristocratic funeals, and this eprsists well into imperial period - FlaviumAmphitheatre - The name colosseum is apparently a modern name, one tht is not known before the medieval times. Probably derived from a nearby statue - the colossos erected by Nero - The entrance of the domus area there was a colossos statue of nero int he guise of a sungod, same height as the amphitetheatre - After neros death, his statue was moved by hardrian n 2 cent BC, when it was in the way of his temple program - He moved it next to the colosseum - Reowkred it into statue of SOl, Sun god - Hardrain thought it neede da counterpart and built Luna next o it - but this never reall happened - The identiy changed a couple times - commodos changed into heracles - falvium apmphitheatre buitl by flavians. Began in 70AD, other members of the dynasty fnished it (under Titus it was completed and nagurated - Took about 10 years - Funded by war booty of jewish war - 50000kl of gold and silver used it for a number of building projects - Act of liberatus to the peole of rome - Gave back the area Nero had built on back to th epeope - Reused a system of channels built by nero to redirect to the amphitheatre - could be used to floor the arena for sea battles - Celebrates military successes and the triumphs of it and how much the emperor cares for the people cause he rededicates the land of nero to the people - First games lasted 100 days (inagural ) - 5000 wild animals killed - Lots of glad fihts - could seat 50,000 spectators, althought a later source says 80,000 - Interesting if you compare to th eother venues for entertainment: def much more than th elargest roman theatres coudl hold - Varoius additions made, and various destructions due to fires - Some parts too high and struck by lightning - 3 cent CE struck by lightning, damaged so seriously that t could not be used for a number of years - Did not seem to stop with the arrival of christianity - Animal hunts held in the theatre until eary 6 cent CE )by christians) - And the glad games diminished - Spolia for building projects - Consists of 4 floors, the first three have archades - arches - This was a popular motif - Travertine - highwaulity limestone - Groudn floor has tuscan order - simplified version of the doric order - Then the second floor is built in ionic order - The third floor uses the corinthian order - The edition (4 floor) has pilasters which are square and they are also in th corinthian order - Each of these archades had a statue in it - of greek gods and heroes? - The appearance of the whoel thing would have been really quite different from how it is now - Enormous deisplay of greek works of art, or roman copies - Pilasters too had art - Fourth order provided support for wooden masts, used to attach awnings that provided shade to the spectators - Awhole bunch of sailors shipped in to man these awnings caus
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