Lecture 19.pdf

3 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

Lecture #19 November-19-12 2:05 PM Important Points: Today's Topics:  The Middle Kingdom  Second Intermediate Period  The Early New Kingdom Lecture Topic: The Middle Kingdom During the lecture, take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecture topic.  Dynasty 13 ○ Continues rule from Itjy-tawy  But many short reigns  Did office "circulate"? (S. Quirke) ○ Last 50 years --> gradual decline  (Neferhotep I --> Nile floods no longer recorded ○ Sobekhotep IV --> Signs of revolt in Nubia  Egypt eventually loses control  Pulls back to Buhen, then Aswan  Kingdom of Kerma expands ○ EGYPT DISINTEGRATES ONCE MORE Lecture Topic: Second Intermediate Period • Fragmentation ○ Early Dynasty 13 --> reign of Ithi-Tawy/Memphis ○ Towards end of Dynasty  New set of rulers (independent) in Western Delta □ (several independent kinglets) □ Especially Xois □ Also: Avaris - Asian population - is developing into improtant trade center □ (=Dyn. 14; c.1773-1650BCE) ○ Dynasty 13 --> refuge in Thebes?  Last rulers attest only to Abydos and Aswan • The HYKSOS ○ (Other?) Foreign kings (Egyptian heqau-khasut = "Rulers of Foreign Countries"  Take charge in Eastern Delta (=Dynasties 15 (-16?)) ○ Origin disputed --> commonly: Amorites  Egyptologists: "Asiatics" (generally means the Syrians) ○ Archaeological evidence --> gradual take-over  INFILTRATION RATHER THAN INVASION  Movement into Egypt due to migration of Indo-Arian peoples into their territories in first half of 17th century BCE □ However: final take-over aided by superior Military Technology:  Horse-drawn chariot (--> later used to impressive effect by the Egyptians of the NK)  More powerful Composite Bow, and others • The Hyksos Kingdom ○ Asiatics settled in Eastern Delta during MK  Cult center for Baal at Avaris/Tell el-Dabaa □ Identified with Seth  Trading emporium for commercial ventures □ To become Hyksos capital ○ First entirelyforeign dynasty  But present themselves as Egyptian  Throne names compounded with Ra ○ Some "Asiatics" in office of kingship already in later dyn. 13--> Khendjer + Aamu  Pyramids at Saqqara! □ (Aya --> buried at Avaris!)  Also: large number of Asiatic slaves • Dynasties 15-17 ○ Hyksos officially claim ALL of Egypt and regions of Palestine ○ But allow dependent kinglets (nominally) as cassals ○ --> Notably:  Theban rulers of later Dyn. 17 ○ Dyn. 16  Manetho = "lesser Hyksos" □ --> such cassals?  Contemporary with Dyn. 15 ○ Dyn. 15's Khian --> monuments from Bubastis (Delta) to Gebelein, South of Thebes, UE  --> ruled entire country Hyksos objects at Knossos/Crete NMC 101 - Land of the Pharaohs Page 1 ○ Hyksos objects at Knossos/Crete  (famous bull-leaper scenes from palace at Auaris --> early 18th Dyn. --> suggest direct contacts at least then) ○ Also Baghdad, Hittite Bogazkoy, Carthage, and Spain  Some due to trade (?)  (But_ Royal Scarabs all over Syria-Palestine --> definite presence ○ Nubia --> Trade up to Kerma / 3rd cataract ○ Just south of Aswan  Independent Nubian principality  Pan Grave Culture --> tombs up to Assiut --> recognized Hyksos rule  Later support 17th Dyn. • Dynasty 17 ○ Hyksos seem (originally) universally accepted  Year 33 of last ruler, Apophis:  Theban scribe copies mathematical papyrus Rhind without reference to Theban Dynasty □ Theban ruler called "Prince of the southern city" ○ But Ruling Family --> extend influence north to Abydos ○ Names reflect links with MK:  Sobekemsaf, Mentuhotep, Intef □ (trying to continue where they left off or are in fact descendants?) As in 1st IP --> some Provincial Art Styles ○ ○ But also commitment to preserve scientific and literary works of earlier periods  Various only in copies from that time: (p=papyrus) □ pRhind (Mathematics) □ pEdwin Smith (Medicine) □ (pPrisse) Instructions of Ptahhotep and Kagemni • Seqenenre-Tao and the Ahmosides ○ Seqenenre Tao revolts against Hyksos Apophis  Ramesside story □ "The Quarrel of Apophis and Seqenenre" (WKS, 69-71) □ Claims Hyksos king taunted Thebans, goading them to attack □ Seqenenre's mummy shows was killed in battle ○ When son/brother (?) Kamose takes over  Thebans as far north as Cusae (north of Assiut) • "The Quarrel of Apophis and Seqenenre" (WKS, 69-71) ○ "… it was his wish to send an inflammatory message to king Seqenenre … Let there be a w[ithdrawa;] from Hippopotamous mars
More Less

Related notes for NMC101H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.